This blog attempts to collate various materials in connection with the year 1735.

20071206

Woodruff House NJ USA


Woodruff House in New Jersy is open to the public. The house was originally built in 1735. More details here.

America

America 1735. The colony of Georgia prohibited importation of African slaves and rum. Settlement there spread to Augusta and John Wesley formed his first Methodist society. A French settlement appeared at Vincennes, Indiana near the Ohio River and St Genevieve on the Missouri River. In New England a Scarlet fever epidemic began. Botulism discovered in German sausages. England is distilling a gallon of gin for every man, woman and child in the nation.

Charity Hospital New Orleans




Nothing being more certain than death, and nothing more uncertain than its hour, being stricken with a dangerous bodily malady, but sane of mind, I desire to settle my affairs, explaining how I intend that my last will be carried out by testamentary executor … a sale shall be made of all that remains, which, together with my small lot, I bequeath to serve in perpetuity to the founding of a hospital for the sick of the City of New Orleans, without anyone being able to change my purpose, and to secure the things necessary to succor the sick.

These words written more than 250 years ago are part of the Last Will and Testament of Jean Louis dated November 16, 1735. Jean Louis, a French seaman who built boats in New Orleans, bequeathed his holdings to the founding and maintenance of Charity Hospital, a hospital for the indigent sick of the colony of New Orleans.
He left 200 Livres to "the poor who are too proud to beg and one hundred livres to procure clothes for the most needy orphans". What ever else he possessed was to go toward founding the hospital. $4,000 was the legacy. Bienville wrote to France that the hospital would be used to put the street beggars to work. A hurricane blew the building down 40 years after being built. The facility was rebuilt (1784) and supported by Don Andres Almonester y Roxas who became its administrator, appointed by the King of Spain and named the Hospice of St Charles in his honour.

20071105

Wesley's Journal 09


[Dec 1735]
Wednesday 10, We sailed from Cowes, and in the afternoon past the Needles. Here the ragged rocks, with the waves dashing and foaming at the foot of them, and the white side of the island rising to such a height, perpendicular from the beach, gave a strong idea of Him that spanneth the heavens, and holdeth the waters in the hollow of his hand! Today I spoke closely on the head of religion, to one I had talked with once or twice before. Afterwards she said, with many tears, "My mother died when I was but ten years old. Some of her last words were, 'Child, fear God, and though you lose me you shall never want a friend.' I have now found a friend when I most wanted, and least expected one."

From this day to the 14th, being in the Bay of Biscay, the sea was very rough. Mr Delamotte and many others were more sick than ever: Mr Ingham a little; I not at all. But the 14th being a calm day, most of the sick were cured at once.

Thurs. 18, One who was big with child, in a high fever, and almost wasted away with a violent cough, desired to receive the Holy Communion before she died. At the hour of her receiving, she began to recover, and in a few days was entirely out of danger.

Sunday 21, We had fifteen communicants, which was our usual number on Sundays; on Christmas Day we had nineteen; but on New-year's-Day, fifteen only.

Wesley's Journal 08

Tuesday, Dec 2,
I had much satisfaction in conversing with one that was very ill and very serious. But in a few days she recovered from her sickness and from her seriousness together.
Sunday 7, Finding nature did not require so frequent supplies as we had been accustomed to, we agreed to leave off suppers; from doing which we have hitherto found no inconvenience ...

Wesley's Journal 07

[November 1735]
Thursday 20, We fell down into Yarmouth Roads ; but the next day were forced back to Cowes. During our stay here there were several storms; in one of which two ships in Yarmouth Roads were lost. The contrary winds gave my brother an opportunity of complying with the desire of the Minister of Cowes, and preaching there three or four times. The poor people flocked together in great numbers. We distributed a few little books among the more serious of them, which they received with all possible expressions of thankfulness.

Friday 21, One recovering from a dangerous illness, desired to be instructed in the nature of the Lord's supper. I thought it concerned her to be first instructed in the nature of Christianity; and accordingly fixt an hour a day to read with her in Mr. Law's Treatise on Christian Perfection.

Sunday 23, At night I was waked by the tossing of the ship and roaring of the wind, and plainly shewed, I was unfit, for I was unwilling to die.

Russo-Turkish War

There has been more than one war between Russia and Turkey or the Ottoman Empire. One occurred 1735-39.
By the outbreak of war, Russia had managed to secure a favourable international situation by signing a few treaties with Persia, 1732-1735, (which was at war with Turkey 1730-36) and supporting the accession to the Polish throne of Augustus III (1735) instead of the French protege Stanislaw I Leszczynski, nominated by pro-Turkish France. Austria was Russia's ally since 1726.
The casus belli was the raids of the Crimean Tatars on Ukraine at the end of 1735 and the Crimean khan's military campaign in the Caucasus. In 1736, the Russian commanders envisioned the seizure of Azov and the Crimea.
In May 1736, the Russian Dnieper army (62,000 men) took by storm the Turkish fortifications at Prekop and occupied Bakhchisaray by June. However, lack of supplies coupled with the outbreak of an epidemic forced a retreat to Ukraine. The Russian Don army (28,000 men) with support from the Don Flotilla seized the fortress of Azov. In July, 1737, the first army took by storm the Turkish fortress of Ochakov. The Lacy army (already 40,000 men strong) marched into the Crimea the same month, inflicting a number of defeats on the army of the Crimean khan and capturing Karasubazar. However, Lacy and his soldiers had to leave the Crimea due to lack of supplies.
In July 1737, Austria entered the war against the Turks but was defeated a number of times. In August, Russia, Austria and the Ottoman Empire began fruitless negotiations to end the war. The Russian army had to leave Ochakov and Kinburn because of plague.
In 1739 the Turks were defeated at Stavuchany and occupied the fortress of Khotin and Jassy. However, Austria was defeated by the Turks once again and signed a separate peace treaty. This, coupled with the imminent threat of Swedish invasion, forced Russia to sign the Treaty of Nissa with Turkey, which ended the war.

Johann Philipp Krieger


Johann Philipp Krieger was born in 1651 and died July 18, 1735. Krieger was a German Baroque composer who, although not prominent, contributed quality music (such as keyboard music,trio sonatas and operas) to the 17th and 18th Century world.
As a young boy he studied with Drechsel and Joachim Schutz in Nurnberg. In his teens he studied for nearly five years as a pupil of Schröder and Förster. After returning to his home in Bayreuth he served as organist, while the Nurnberg Council promised him the first available position.
He travelled to Italy in 1673 and studied in Venice with Johann Rosenmuller and Volpe. In Rome he studied with Abbatim and Bernardo Pasquini. In 1675 he performed for Leopold I at Vienna, and was ennobled by him. He later returned to Bayreuth, and shortly thereafter visited Frankfurt and Kassel, refusing job opportunities in both places. At Halle, in 1677, he was named chamber musician and organist, became Vice-Kapellmeister in 1678 and Kapellmeister when the court moved to Weissenfels in 1680. The court’s musical establishment soon became one of Germany’s greatest. A catalogue of vocal works performed there lists over 2,000 of Krieger’s compositions along with hundreds of works by his brother Johann and other German and Italian composers.

20071025

Utogawa Toyoharu

The Japanese artist Utogawa Toyoharu lived from 1735-1814. More info here.



Lacon Childe School in Cleobury, South Shropshire was founded in 1735 and continues to this day. See here.

20071008

Wesley's Journal 06

Friday 31 [October] We sailed out of the Downs. At eleven at night I was waked by a great noise. I soon found there was no danger; but the bare apprehension of it gave me a lively conviction what manner of men those ought to be who are every moment on the brink of eternity.
Saturday, Nov. 1, We came to St Helen's harbour, and the next day into Cowe's Road. The wind was fair, but we waited for the man of war which was to sail with us. This was a happy opportunity of instructing our fellow-travellers. May he whose seed we sow, give it the increase!
Sunday 16 [November], Thomas Hird, and Grace his wife, with their children, Mark, aged 21, and Phebe, about 17, late Quakers, were, at their often repeated desire, and after careful instruction, admitted to baptism.

Francis Barber


Francis Barber (ca 1735 – 1801) was the Jamaican manservant of Samuel Johnson from 1752 until Johnson's death in 1784. Johnson made him his residual heir, with £70 a year to be given him by Trustees, expressing the wish that he move from London toLichfield, Staffordshire, Johnson's native city. After Johnson's death, Barber did this, opening a draper's shop and marrying a local girl. Barber was also left Johnson's books, papers and gold watch. In later years he had acted as Johnson's assistant in revising hisfamous dictionary and other works.
Barber wasborna slave on a sugarplantation in Jamaica. Around the age of 15 he was brought toEngland by his owner, Colonel Richard Bathhurst, whose son, also called Richard, was a close friend of Johnson. He was sent to school inYorkshire. Johnson's wife Elizabeth Porter died in 1752, plunging Johnson into a depression that Barber later vividly described to Boswell. The Bathursts sent Barber to Johnson as a valet, arriving two weeks after her death. Although thelegal validity of salvery in England was ambiguous at this time (a later legal decision clarified that it did not exist in England), when the elder Bathurst died two years later he gave Barber his freedom in his will, with a small legacy of £12. Johnson himself was an outspoken opponent of slavery, not just in England butin the American Colonies too.
Barber then went to work for an apothecary but kept in touch with Johnson. He later signed up as a sailor, until retrieved, perhaps against his wishes, by Johnson, returning to be his servant. Barber's brief maritime career is known from Boswell's Life of Johnson. “
Later Johnson put Barber, by then in his early thirties, in a school, presumably so that he could act as Johnson's assistant.
Barber is often mentioned in Boswell and other contemporary sources, and there are at least two versions of a portrait, one now in Dr Johnson's House [see pic] which may be of him. Most recent art historians thought it was probably painted by James Northcote (painter of the shark incident I mentioned recently) or perhaps by Northcote's master SirJoshau Reynolds, one of Barber's Trustees under the will (and afriedn of Johnson). An alternative view is that it is by Reynolds himself, but of his own black servant, not Barber.
When making his will, Johnson asked Sir John Hawkins, later his first biographer, what provision he should make for Barber. Sir John said that a nobleman would give £50 a year. Then I shall be "noblissimus" replied Johnson, and give him £70. Hawkins disapproved, and after Johnson's death criticised his "ostentatious bounty and favour to negroes." The bequest was indeed widely covered in the press.
Barber's life in Staffordshire was unsettled and he was apparently given to drinking. He died inStafford; his descendants still farm near Lichfield.

20071005

Wesley's Journal 05


Friday 24 [October], Having a rolling sea, most of the passengers found the effects of it. Mr. Delamotte was exceeding sick for several days: Mr. Ingham for about half an hour. My brother's head ached much. Hitherto it has pleased God, the sea has not disordered me at all; nor have I been hindered one quarter of an hour from reading, writing, composing, or doing any business I could have done on shore. During our stay in the Downs, some or other of us went as often as we had opportunity on board the ship that sailed in company with us, where also many were glad to join in prayer and hearing the word.

Shark man

Sir Brook Watson, Bart (1735-1807) was a British merchant, soldier and one-time Lord Mayor of London. He was perhaps most famous for being the subject of Watson and the shark, a painting by John Singleton Copley which depicted the shark attack on Watson as a boy. As a result of the attack Watson lost his right leg below the knee. More here.

20071001

Wesley's Journal 04

Tuesday 21 [October], We sailed from Gravesend. When we were past about half the Goodwin Sands, the wind suddenly failed. Had the calm continued till ebb, the ship had probably been lost; but the gale sprung up in an hour, and carried us into the Downs.
We now began to be a little regular. Our common way of living was this: From four in the morning till five, each of us used private prayer; from five to seven we read the Bible together, carefully comparing it (that we might not lean to our own understanding) with the writings of the earliest ages. At seven we breakfasted. At eight were the public prayers. From nine to twelve I usually learned German, and Mr. Delamotte, Greek. My brother [Charles. see pic] wrote sermons, and Mr. Ingham instructed the children. At twelve we met to give an account to one another what we had done since our last meeting, and what we designed to do before our next. About one we dined.
The time from dinner to four, we spent in reading to those whom each of us had taken in charge, or in speaking to them seriously, as need required, At four were the evening prayers; when either the second lesson was explained (as it always was in the morning) or the children were catechised and instructed before the congregation. From five to six we again used private prayer. From six to seven I read in our cabin to two or three of the passengers (of whom there were about eighty English on board) and each of my brethren to a few more in theirs. At seven I joined with the Germans in their public service; while Mr. Ingham was reading between the decks to as many as desired to hear. At eight we met again to exhort and instruct one another. Between nine and ten we went to bed, where neither the roaring of the sea, nor the motion of the ship, could take away the refreshing sleep which God gave us.

20070928

Wesley's Journal 03


Monday 20 [October], Believing the denying ourselves even in the smallest instances, might, by the blessing of God be helpful to us, we wholly left off the use of flesh and wine, and confined ourselves to vegetable food, chiefly rice and bisket. In the afternoon David Nitchman, bishop of the Moravians, and two others began to learn English. O may we be, not only of one tongue, but of one mind and of one heart!

Wesley's Journal 02


Friday 17 [October], I began to learn German, in order to converse with the Moravians, six and twenty of whom we had on board. On Sunday, the weather being fair and calm, we had the morning-service on quarter deck. I now first preached extempore, and then administered the Lord's Supper to six or seven communicants, A little flock. May God increase it !
This is a replica of a desk chair from around 1735 found here.

20070908

Latitude


Theoretically a degree of latitude is a constant, the same at the equator as at the pole. However, Isaac Newton believed that the earth was slightly flattened at the poles, an oblate spheroid, and that the length of a degree at the poles was longer than it was at the equator. On the other hand French mathematicians argued either for a perfect sphere or for a prolate spheroid, one which bulged at the poles.
The French Royal Academy of Sciences determined to settle the matter by sending expeditions to the Equator and to the Arctic Circle. If the length of a degree were longer at the Arctic Circle than at the Equator the spheroid would be oblate, flat at the poles; if it were shorter, prolate, and if the degrees were equal, then the earth would be spherical.
In 1735 the French Royal Academy of Sciences sent out two geodetic expeditions to determine the length of a degree at the pole and at the equator. The expedition to the Arctic Circle was under the leadership of Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis went to the Arctic Circle. The one to the Equator had Charles Marie de La Condamine (see pic) as its chronicler. Near Quito, in what is now Ecuador, a base line was established by triangulation, and the length of the degree of latitude was measured.

Ruth Dunster

Ruth Dunster, daughter of Henry and Martha Dunster, died in 1735 at 1 year, 9 months. In her grave, her sister Elizabeth, age 4 months, lies next to her. A grave nearby reveals another tragically young death and refers to a larger historical context: "Beneath this tomb rests the remains of Mr. Jon Hughes, only son of Mr. John Hughes of Norwich in Connecticut. He died in his Country's Cause July 25th AD 1775 in Ye 21st Year of his Age." Henry Dunster was the son of Henry Dunster, Harvard's founding president who is buried nearby.

Ch'en Shu

This work entitled New Year's Day was produced in 1735 using ink and colours on paper. It is by Ch'en Shu (1660-1736) adn is Qing Dynasty. Ch'en Shu was a native of Hsiu-shui in Chekiang Province, China. She was noted for her paintings of flowers, birds, insects and grasses and landscapes. Her brush was strong and vigorous and possessed the spirit of the antique. This scroll was painted when she was 75.

Porcelain Factory


In the year 1735, Baron Rudolf Johann of Wrisberg (picture), who was engaged at the time as the President of the Upper Court of Appeal in Celle, commisioned his administrator, Rasch, with looking into the possibility of setting up a "pipe factory". While nothing ever came of this pipe production, because of the lack of the necessary kaolin, nontheless clay deposits were discovered in the process, and tests revealed that this clay was suitable for fayence production. Since the surrounding forests belonging to the estate provided sufficient quantities of fuel for running a kiln, Rudolf Johann of Wrisberg decided to set up a large fayence factory.

The following year the buildings of the "porcellain factory" were erected in the kitchen garden northwest of the castle by the Untere Dorfstraße in Wrisbergholzen in Germany.

20070907

Winchester, VA



This marker is found in Winchester, Virginia, USA, and was erected in 2003. It refers to Lord Fairfax arriving in America 'about 1735'. For more see here.

20070820

Hywel Harris

It has been said that the story of Welsh Presbyterianism begins in the year 1735 with the conversion of two men, Daniel Rowland and Hywel Harris (1714-1773). To adapt a piece by Richard Holst

From the year of his birth (1714 in Talgarth, Breconshire) until 1735 Howell Harris' story is wholly unremarkable. His formal education began in 1725 at a nearby elementary school. In 1728 he graduated to the academy at Llwynllwyd and completed his secondary education with competence rather than distinction. In spite of this the young man considered his familiarity with history, politics, games, and the like, ample qualification to be 'the most interesting of companions'! He was an all-or-nothing kind of person, capable, on the one hand, of throwing himself into amusements and youthful mischief and of sinking into deep melancholy, on the other. We see something of this propensity when, after his father's death in 1730, he became schoolmaster at the small township of Llangors, a place of doubtful reputation, not far from his home. While there, he neglected the classics in favour of plays and set about becoming the life and soul of every party. He was also an implacable enemy and mocker of the local Nonconformists. A man of extremes!
His time at Llangors troubled him long after his conversion. He called it, 'the place where I first broke out in the devil's service' and later reminded his erstwhile friends that many of them used to go with him towards hell. Once, when preaching there, he said, "God's grace must have been free, or else I would not have received it, because I was the worst of you all." An occasional sermon might create a momentary crisis and he once dreamt that he stood before the judgment-seat of God, but such reflections produced only fleeting resolutions to mend his ways, and attempts to pray. "I tried to turn to God in my own power" he said, 'but did not succeed until the day of His power came.'

By the age of 21 he was entertaining thoughts of the Anglican ministry but as yet had not managed to attend a single service of Holy Communion, whether out of indifference or a tender of conscience, we are not told. But God's ways are not ours! On March 30, 1735, the Sunday before Easter, the vicar of Talgarth, Rev Pryce Davies, announced that the following Lord's Day he would celebrate Holy Communion. He read the formal exhortation from the Prayer Book and came to the words, "Therefore our duty is to come to these holy mysteries with most hearty thanks to be given to Almighty God ..." Looking up he said, 'You plead your unfitness to come to the Holy Communion. Let me tell you, that if you are not fit to come to the Lord's Supper, you are not fit to live, you are not fit to die."
The logic was impeccable. If we are unfit to draw near to God, we abide under his wrath and are not fit to live or die. Harris knew at that moment that he that he was unfit to meet his God and resolved that he would attend Holy Communion on Easter Sunday without a bad conscience. On his way home that morning he called on a neighbour with whom he had quarrelled and made it up with him. All the following week he kept himself from his usual sins and anything else he considered inconsistent with a religious life. Thus began his attempt at personal, moral reformation.
Next Sunday came and he presented himself at the Lord's Supper more at ease with himself than before, that is, until the vicar began reading the general confession of sins. Howell recited the words after him, 'We acknowledge and bewail our manifold sins and wickedness ... which we have committed by thought, word and deed ... provoking most justly your divine wrath and indignation against us. We do earnestly repent, and are heartily sorry for these our misdoings; the remembrance of them is grievous to us ...' Bewail, repent, heartily sorry for our misdoings ... grievous to us? All this was humbug; he was telling lies to God! His sins were not grievous, and he did not bewail them. He knew that the guilt of the previous Sunday had been a passing discomfort, and that if the truth be told, he didn't feel any real burden at all!
It was enough to drive him from the Lord's Table, but an ameliorating thought entered his head; he had honestly and sincerely tried to change his life and be as good as it was possible for him to be. He had done all that God could reasonably expect of him, and God is not unreasonable. Armed with the spurious comfort of a duty performed and seemingly with a clear conscience, he partook of the Holy Communion for the first time in his life.

Beginning is easier than continuing - especially when you are trying to do it in your own strength! After momentary elation Harris found himself in the depths of despair. On April 20, someone gave him a 'Book on the Commandments written by Brian Duppa'. It seemed to do him no good; the more he read the more sinful he felt himself to be and the more depressed he became. 'By the law comes the knowledge of sin!' God was showing him the 'exceeding sinfulness of sin' and he found the experience exceedingly painful. Nevertheless the book, which plunged him into despair, also showed him the way forward. Having tried to put himself right with God he now understood that he needed God to settle accounts for him. The Law of God had driven him to rely on the Son of God, who is' the end of the Law to all who believe.' Attendance at Whitsun communion was quite different because his confession was true and heartfelt. He had been to Jesus Christ for forgiveness. Through faith in him he was now fit to live and die.
The effect was more or less immediate. Harris began 'exhorting' whoever would listen to him, and others who would not. No period of preparation 'in Arabia' was necessary, though, as he later admitted, he knew nothing. But having been to the 'Fountainhead', and feeling the compulsion of his experience, he plunged himself into urging others to be reconciled to God. Those close to him were shocked, and by the following November had packed him off to Oxford 'to cure him of his fanaticism'. But Harris was now God's man and being unable to tolerate the worldliness and immorality of university life, he remained there barely a week before returning to Breconshire.
Thus by 1736 his bold witness was attracting large audiences. He wrote, 'a strong necessity was laid upon me, that I could not rest, but must go to the utmost of my ability to exhort. I could not meet or travel with anybody, rich or poor, young or old, without speaking to them of religion and concerning their souls'. Family gatherings turned into congregations so large that ordinary dwellings could not accommodate them. Family worship was instituted in many homes and churches in the neighbourhood became crowded, with many seeking admission to the Lord's Supper. The Evangelical Awakening had begun.

20070818

Philadelphia

This is the Pennsylvania State House, Philadelphia, USA, where the Second Continental Congress signed the Declaration of Independence and where, a decade later, delegates to the "Philadelphia Convention" formulated the Constitution. The Pennsylvania Assembly, which had been meeting in homes and taverns, moved into the building in September 1735. It was considered the most ambitious public building in the colonies.

20070724

Robert Robinson

Robert Robinson was born in Saffham, Norfolk, in 1735. (He died in 1790). His wi­dowed mo­ther sent him at age 14 to Lon­don to learn the trade of bar­ber and hair dress­er. How­ev­er, his mas­ter found he en­joyed read­ing more than work. Con­vert­ed to Christ at age 17, Ro­bin­son be­came a Meth­od­ist min­is­ter. He lat­er became a Bapt­ist and pas­tored in Cam­bridge, Eng­land. He wrote a num­ber of hymns, as well as on the sub­ject of the­ol­o­gy. His lat­er life was ev­i­dent­ly not an ea­sy one, judg­ing from an unsubstantiated but well known sto­ry about his hymn “Come, Thou Fount of Every Bless­ing.” One day, he en­count­ered a wo­man who was study­ing a hymn­al and she asked how he liked the hymn she was hum­ming. In tears, he re­plied, “Madam, I am the poor un­hap­py man who wrote that hymn ma­ny years ago, and I would give a thou­sand worlds, if I had them, to en­joy the feelings I had then.”

Edward Miller


A writer of hymn tunes, Edward Miller was born in 1735 (he died in 1807). His most famous tunes are Galway and Rockingham. Ap­prent­iced to his father, a pav­ior (a lay­er of pav­ing stones and the like), he ran away to stu­dy mu­sic. At one time he was a flaut­ist in Han­del’s or­ches­tra. He played the or­gan for 50 years at Don­caster Church, and com­posed hymn tunes and harp­si­chord so­na­tas. Cam­bridge Un­i­ver­si­ty award­ed him a doctor­ate in 1786. His works in­clude:
The Psalms of Da­vid Set to New Mu­sic, 1774
Elements of Thorough-bass and Com­po­si­tion, 1787
The Psalms of Da­vid for the Use of Par­ish Churche­s, 1790
Thoughts on the Present Per­form­ance of Psalm­o­dy, 1791
The Psalms of Watts and Wes­ley, 1801
Sac­red Mu­sic, 1802
History of Don­cas­ter, 1804

Hamburg 1735

Hamburg's town centre. Copperplate engraving by Christian Fritzsch, ca. 1735
Found here



Poor Richard's Almanack

Poor Richard's Almanack (sometimes Almanac) was a yearly one published by Benjamin Franklin, who adopted the pseudonym of "Poor Richard" or "Richard Saunders" for this purpose. The publication appeared continuously from 1732-1758. It was a best seller for a pamphlet published in the American colonies; print runs reached 10,000 per year.
Franklin, the American inventor, statesman adn publisher, achieved success with Poor Richard's Almanack. Almanacks were very popular books in colonial Aemrica, with people in the colonies using them for the mixture of seasonal weather forecasts, practical household hints, puzzles, and other amusements they offered. Poor Richard's Almanack was popular for all of these reasons, and also for its extensive use of wordplay, with many examples derived from the work surviving in the contemporary American vernacular.
These are the maxims for the 1735 edition. These and the introduction can be found here.
Look before, or you'll find yourself behind.
Bad Commentators spoil the best of books,
So God sends meat (they say) the devil Cooks.
Approve not of him who commends all you say.
By diligence and patience, the mouse bit in two the cable.
Full of courtesie, full of craft.
A little House well fill'd, a little Field well till'd, and a little Wife well will'd, are great Riches.
Old Maids lead Apes there, where the old Batchelors are turn'd to Apes.
Some are weatherwise, some are otherwise.
(Dyrro lynn y ddoeth e fydd ddoethach.)
The poor man must walk to get meat for his stomach,
the rich man to get a stomach to his meat.

He that goes far to marry, will either deceive or be deceived.
Eyes and Priests Bear no Jests.
The Family of Fools is ancient.
Necessity never made a good bargain.
If Pride leads the Van, Beggary brings up the Rear.
There's many witty men whose brains can't fill their bellies.
Weighty Questions ask for deliberate Answers.
When and in lie, Then, Maids, whate'er is ask'd of you, deny.
Be slow in chusing a Friend, slower in changing.
Old Hob was lately married in the Night,
What needed Day, his fair young Wife is light.
Pain wastes the Body, Pleasures the Understanding.
The cunning man steals a horse, the wise man lets him alone.
Nothing but Money, Is sweeter than Honey.
Humility makes great men twice honourable.
A Ship under sail and a big-bellied Woman,
Are the handsomest two things that can be seen [q] common.
Keep thy shop, & thy shop will keep thee.
The King's cheese is half wasted in parings:
But no matter, 'tis made of the peoples milk.
What's given shines, What's receiv'd is rusty.
Sloth and Silence are a Fool's Virtues.
Of learned Fools I have seen ten times ten, Of unlearned wise men I have seen a hundred.
Three may keep a Secret, if two of them are dead.
Poverty wants some things, Luxury many things, Avarice all things.
A Lie stands on 1 leg, Truth on 2 .
There's small Revenge in Words, but Words may be greatly revenged.
Great wits jump (says the Poet) and hit his Head against the Post.
A man is never so ridiculous by those
Qualities that are his own as by those that he affects to have.
Deny Self for Self's sake.
Tim moderate fare and abstinence much prizes In publick, but in private gormandizes.
Ever since Follies have pleas'd, Fools have been able to divert.
It is better to take many Injuries than to give one.
Opportunity is the great Bawd.
Early to bed and early to rise, makes a man healthy wealthy and wise.
To be humble to Superiors is Duty, to Equals Courtesy, to Inferiors Nobleness.
Here comes the Orator! with his Flood of Words, and his Drop of Reason.
An old young man, will be a young old man.
Sal laughs at every thing you say. Why? Because she has fine Teeth.
If what most men admire, they would despise,'Twould look as if mankind were growing wise.
The Sun never repents of the good he does, nor does he ever demand a recompence.
Are you angry that others disappoint you? remember you cannot depend upon yourself.
One Mend-fault is worth two Findfaults, but one Findfault is better than two Makefaults.
Reader, I wish thee Health, Wealth, Happiness,
And may kind Heaven thy Year's Industry bless.

Benjamin Franklin

An exhaustive catalogue of events in the life of Benjamin Franklin for 1735 can be found here.

Morris 2274

MORRIS 2274 was a children's comedy series that appeared on Channel 5 in the UK in 2003, 2004. It is about 11-year old Rory Busby who meets children from the future who can travel back in time. (A Two Hats Production). It was filmed mostly in Surrey, England. There was a spin-off called Billie: Girl of the future.
Some 13 episodes were made and the one that caught my eye was called (you've guessed) The Year 1735. It was broadcast on November 02, 2003. I have no more info at present.

American Politicians

If you check here you will find list of 15 American politicians (with links) born in 1735. John Adams is the most famous.

20070723

Granville Sharp


Granville Sharp waw born in 1735. (He died in 1813). He is remembered as an early British abolitionist. He was a member of each of the first Anti-Slavery Society and the Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade (later, the Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade), founded in 1787.

20070718

King George II

The King of England in 1735 was George II, the last King to be born outside Great Britain. He was born in 1683 and died in 1760. He became King on his father's death in 1727. George II made Kensington Palace the centre of his court life. He fell out with both his father and his son.  He was the last monarch to lead his troops into battle in 1743 at the Battle of Dettingen. More here.

20070709

American founder

Button Gwinnett was born in 1735 and died in a duel in 1777. Apart from the fact his father was a Welsh clergyman (hence the surname) his claim to fame is that he was a signer of the American Declaration of Independence. See more here.

Isaac Bickerstaffe

Issac Bickerstaffe or Bickerstaff was born around 1735 and died around 1808. He was an Irish playwright. He was in early life a page to Lord Chesterfield when Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. He arrived in London 1755 and produced many successful comedies and opera librettos. With Thomas Arne he wrote Love in a village, the first English comic opera. His The Maide of the Mill (1765) was also very successful. In 1772 he fled to France, suspected of a homosexual offence. The remainder of his life seems to have been passed in penury and misery, and little is known about his death. (Jonathan Swift once wrote under the same pseudonym).

20070703

Haarlem organ


1735 organ in the Groote Kerk in Haarlem, Netherlands

20070628

Wesley's Journal 01

This is the opening entry in John Welsey's journal
Tuesday, October 14, 1735, Mr Benjamin Ingham, of Queen’s College, Oxford, Mr. Charles Delamotte, so of a merchant in London, who had offered himself some days before, my brother Charles Wesley, and myself, took boat for Gravesend, in order to embark for Georgia. Our end in leaving our native country was not to avoid want, (God having given us plenty of temporal blessings) nor to gain the dung or dross of riches or honour; but singly this, to save our souls; to live wholly to the glory of God. In the afternoon we found the Simmonds off Gravesend and immediately went on board.
Wednesday and Thursday we spent with one or two of our friends, partly on board and partly on shore, in exhorting one another “to shake off every weight, and to run with patience the race set before us.”

Whitefield Letter 2

LETTER VI
Oxon, March 6, 1735
Dear Sir,

I Had the favour of your letter by Mr. H. and, as desired, I have made enquiry about the post-masters and clerks of Merton. As to the former, I hear, that the five senior fellows have each a power to elect one in his turn, and that there is now a vacancy, but one ready on the spot to supply it, and no likelihood of there being another this long while. The latter are solely in the power of the warden, and though all the places are at present filled up, yet, there will be a vacancy next term, so that, perhaps, by a seasonable application, your brother may get a friend in. Thus much for business.
As for the other particulars, specified in the latter part of your last I find by what I can gather from your own and my brother’s expressions, as well as from Mr. H.’s discourse, that my late letters have met with but a cold reception; and that you seem desirous of hearing no more of so seemingly ungrateful a subject, as submitting our wills to the will of GOD; which, indeed, is all that is implied in that phrase (which our enemy would represent as so formidable to us) of renouncing ourselves. Alas, Sir! what is there that appears so monstrously terrible in a doctrine that is, (or at least ought to be) the constant subject of our prayers, whenever we put up that petition of our LORD’S: “Thy will be done in earth, as it is in Heaven.” The import of which seems to be this. That we do every thing that GOD wills, and nothing but what he willeth. 2dly, That we do every thing he wills, only in the manner he willeth. 3dly, That we do those things he willeth, only because he willeth. This is all, Sir, I have been endeavouring to inculcate in my late letters; and though it seems as clear as the light, upon an impartial and considerate view, yet, our grand impostor (whose very corruption is having a will distinct from, and therefore contrary to GOD’S) would fain set it out in the most hideous colours, as though we were setters forth of strange doctrines; or proposing same higher degrees of persecution, than every ordinary christian is obliged to aspire after; whereas, in truth, it is nothing but the simple and evident language of the gospel. It must be confessed, that through the corruption of our depraved nature, and that power, which self-will has, since the Fall, usurped in the soul, we must necessarily break through a great many obstacles. But, dear Sir, be not dismayed, the difficulty lies only in our first setting out. Be but vigorous at the first onset, and never fear a conquest. The renewal of our natures is a work of great importance. It is not to be done in a day, We have not only a new house to build up, but an old one to pull down. But then, methinks, this would be an odd way of reasoning, “Because a thing requires some pains, I therefore will never set about it.” No, Sir, rather up and be doing. Exert your utmost efforts at your first setting out, and take my word, your strength as well as resolution will increase daily. The means also which are necessary to be used in order to attain this end, our cursed adversary the devil would represent to us in the most hideous forms imaginable, But believe me, Sir, the difficulty here too, only lies in our first breaking from ourselves, and that there is really more pleasure in these formidable duties of self-denial and mortification, than in the highest indulgences of the greatest epicure upon earth. Give me leave, dear Sir, only to remind you of one particular, which, if duly observed, will vastly facilitate your future endeavours. Let the scriptures, not the world, be your rule of action. By those you are to form your practice here, and to be judged hereafter. Upon this account, for the future, I should be glad, if you would communicate what passes between you and me, to none but my brother and your spouse. And if you have any the least scruple, be pleased to send me word of it by a letter in an open, friendly manner; and, by God’s blessing, all things will be yet set right; only be fervent in prayer. As for what the Rev. Mr. Hoar has been pleased to say, either to you or Mr. H. it is not my business (out of deference, as he is so much my superior, as to the dignity of his office, his age, and his learning) to make any reply. I shall only add, what I am sure I can prove, That “the gospel tells us that there is but one thing needful. That we cannot sit down content with just such a degree of goodness, and claim just such a proportionable degree of “glory;” but that “we are to love the LORD with all our souls, strength, &c.” and that “he who endureth to the end, (and he only) shall be saved.””
There is a little treatise lately come out, which I have made bold to send to Mr; Hoar, where we may be fully convinced by argument deducible merely from reason, “that GOD is our sole end,” and that barely upon a principle of prudence, (supposing we could be happy without it) we ought to press forward, in order to attain the greatest degrees of happiness hereafter. Whether this letter, Sir, may prove as offensive as the former, is not my business to enquire, GOD’s will be done in all things. He, and he alone can (and indeed will, if we are desirous of it ourselves) work this conviction in our minds. Give me leave just to add, that I thought it my duty to answer these few objections, that have been raised against the difficulty of conforming our wills to the will of God, by showing that the greatest struggle lies only at our first beginning, and that it is no more than what is indispensably necessary for our salvation. As for the means to be employed for the attainment of this end, I shall be wholly silent: Being sensible, that if you are once fully convinced of the greatness of it, you will be necessarily carried on to the use of such means as GOD hath constituted for that purpose. I hope my writing after this manner, Sir, will not be esteemed a piece of self-conceit, or be an instrument of unloosing our former bond of friendship, which was once designed to be bound the faster, by tying it with a religious knot. But whether this proves to be the event, or not, of my telling my friends the truth, I wholly leave to GOD’s Providence. Be pleased however to favour me with a line in return, and give me leave to subscribe myself, Dear Sir,
Your sincere friend and most obliged humble servant,
G W

Whitefield Letter 1


One of the great events of 1735 was the conversion of the evangelist George Whitefield (1714-1770). This is a letter he wrote early in that year.
(LETTER V in Letters)
Oxon, Feb. 20, 1735
Dear Sir,
I Believe you think me a strange sort of a person, for not being so good as my word in coming down this Winter; and what is worse, in not letting you have a line to acquaint you of my reasons for it. And, indeed, I am not as yet determined; providence having ordered (I hope) that this seeming unkindness shall, in the end, prove very serviceable on all sides. However, though I have been thus hindered, yet, I think you heard from me last, and am really surprised to find you should, now so long since, have desired that collection of prayers, and be wholly unconcerned about them ever after. Indeed, they will be of no service to you, unless you grant me this one postulatum : “That we must renounce ourselves.” What the meaning of this phrase may be, the preface to the prayers will best inform you. I did not doubt of its meeting with but a cold reception, it being (at first view) so very contrary to flesh and blood. For, perhaps, you may think, that this renouncing of ourselves, must necessarily lead us (as it certainly does) to acts of self-denial and mortification; and, that we probably may be saved without them. And lest you should after all imagine, (which I trust you will not) that true religion does consist in any thing, besides an entire renewal of our natures into the image of God; I have sent you a book entitled, The Life of GOD in the Soul of Man,* written by a young, but an eminent Christian, which will inform you, what true religion is, and by what means you may attain it. As likewise, how wretchedly most people err in their sentiments about it, who suppose it to be nothing else (as he tells us page 3d) but a mere model of outward performances; without ever considering, that all our corrupt passions must be subdued, and a complex habit of virtues, such as meekness, lowliness, faith, hope, and the love of GOD and of man, be implanted in their room, before we can have the least title to enter into the kingdom of GOD. Our divine master having expressly told us, that “unless we renounce ourselves, and take up our cross daily, we cannot be his disciples.” And again, unless we have the spirit of CHRIST, we are none of his.” You will scarce have time, I imagine, before Mr. H. leaves Gloucester, to revile, what I have recommended to your perusal. However, be pleased to let me hear from you by him, together with an account of your free sentiments about this matter. I trust (by GOD’s grace) we shall, at last, rightly understand one another’s meaning. I should be glad to hear too, whether you keep morning prayers, and how often you receive the holy communion, there being nothing, which so much be-dwarfs us in religion, and hinders our progress towards the heavenly Canaan, as starving our souls by keeping away from the heavenly banquet. I have nothing more to add at present on this subject, till you favour me with a line, which, I hope, you will not cease doing by Mr. H. who will willingly bring it to,
Dear Sir,
Your sincere friend and very humble servant,
G W
* By Henry Scougal (1650-1678)

Al Bithna Fort UAE

Built in 1735 near Al Bithna Village, Fujeirah, now in the Unite Arab Emirates (UAE), the fort has guarded the strategic route across the Hajar Mountains throught Wadi Ham since the 18th Century and was considered the most important fort in the eastern part of UAE.

Botanical Gardens Mauritius

The Royal Botanical Gardens of Pamplemousses is apparently the highlight of any visit to the north of Mauritius . These world famous gardens were renamed Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam Botanical Gardens in 1988 in honour of the late Prime Minister but many locals still refer to them by the former name.
Pamplemousses is believed to have taken its name from a citrus plant commonly called the pamplemoucier which was imported by the Dutch from Java. The fruit which grows in the area is thick skinned and bitter and resembles a large grapefruit. The Tamils call it the bambolmas and it is believed that this is the origin of the French word pamplemousse or grapefruit. Parking is available close to the main entrance gate, admission is free
The white wrought iron railings and gates won first prize in the International Exhibition in 1862 at Crystal Palace in London. The garden's origins go back to 1735 when Labourdonnais bought a house in the grounds which he called Mon Plaisir. What began as a humble self sufficient vegetable garden developed into a major fresh food source for ships calling at Port Louis. More here.

20070626

The Library



This illustration was the frontispiece to a book published in Leipzig in 1735

More new drama

Henry Carey - The Honest Yorkshireman
Charlotte Charke - The Art of Management
Robert Dodsley - The Toyshop
William Duncombe - Junius Brutus
Henry Fielding - An Old Man Taught Wisdom
- The Universal Gallant
James Miller - The Man of Taste
Lewis Theobald - The Fatal Secret

More New Books

Anonymous - The Dramatic Historiographer (attrib. Eliza Haywood)
George Berkeley - The Querist (the same as the work mentioned previously?)
Jane Brereton - Merlin
Henry Brooke - Universal Beauty
Robert Dodsley - Beauty
Benjamin Hoadly - A Plain Account of the Nature and End of the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper
John Hughes - Poems
Hildebrand Jacob - Brutus the Trojan and Works
Samuel Johnson - A Voyage to Abyssinia
George Lyttelton, 1st Baron Lyttelton - Letters from a Persian in England
William Melmoth - Of Active and Retired Life
John Oldmixon - History of England, During the Reigns of William and Mary, Anne, George I
Alexander Pope - An Epistle from Mr. Pope to Dr Arbuthnot (just after Arbuthnot's death)
Of the Characters of Women ("Moral Epistle II")
The Works of Mr Alexander Pope
Letters of Mr Pope, and Several Eminent Persons (a piracy by Edmund Curll, with forgeries included)
Mr Pope's Literary Correspondence for Thirty Years, 1704-1734 (authorised)
Samuel Richardson - A Seasonable Examination of the Pleas and Pretensions of the Proprietors of, and Subscribers to, Play-Houses
Henry St John - A Dissertation upon Parties
Richard Savage - The Progress of a Divine
William Somerville - The Chace
Jonathan Swift, Pope, Arbuthnot, et al. - Miscellanies in Prose and Verse: Volume the Fifth
and Works
James Thomson - Ancient and Modern Italy Compared, Greece, Rome

Est. 1735

Amelia County, Virginia – named for George II's daughter
Blancpain – Swiss watch manufacturer
Bristol Royal Infirmary
Edial Hall School - by Samuel Johnson. It had only three pupils. One was the actor David Garrick.
Frederiksberg Palace, Denmark
Order of St. Anna – Holstein then Russian chivalric order. Motto “To those who love justice, piety, and fidelity”
The Royal Burgess Golfing Society of Edinburgh – the world's oldest
University of Miskolc – In Northern Hungary, founded as The University of Mining and Metallurgy of Selmecbánya, the first non-ecclesiastical school in the Habsburg Empire.

Indian Freemasons

The first Freemason Lodge in India was formed in Kolkata in 1735. It spread to Mumbai and then to other parts of India. Currently there are 352 lodges under the Grand Lodge of India. Notable Indian Freemasons include Swami Vivekananda, Motilal Nehru, JRD Tata, Rajendra Prasad and S Radhakrishnan.

20070622

Robe a la francaise


This “Robe a la francaise,” a gown featuring brocaded pale yellow silk taffeta — from France or Italy, circa 1735, is on a fashion blog here.

20070620

Henry Hope

Henry Hope (1735-1811) was an Amsterdam merchant banker born in Boston. He had a great art collection. More here.

20070619

Maurice Quentin de la Tour


Self-portrait 1735 by Maurice Quentin de la Tour (1704-1788) in the Uffizi Collection

Greek New Testament

Greek NT of 1735

Michel Nicolas Bernard Lépicié



This painting is by the French painter, draftsman, and professor Michel Nicolas Bernard Lépicié who was born June 16, 1735. He died Sep 14, 1784.

20070614

John Harrison




Constructed between 1730 and 1735, John Harrison's Marine Chronometer number 1 (H1) was essentially a portable version of his precision wooden clocks. It is spring-driven and only runs for one day (the wooden clocks run for 8). The moving parts are controlled and counterbalanced by springs so that, unlike a pendulum clock, H1 is independent of the direction of gravity.
H1 was brought to London in 1735 and displayed to the scientific community. Harrison was beseiged by requests from both scientists and socialites to see the timekeeper.
The following year, Harrison and his timekeeper travelled to Lisbon aboard the ship Centurion to test the clock, and returned on the Orford. H1 performed well in the trial, keeping time accurately enough for Harrison to correct a misreading of the Orford's longitude on the return voyage. However, Harrison did not ask for a second trial but, instead, requested financial assistance from the Board of Longitude to make a second marine timekeeper.

Prélude, Allemande & Courante in A


Pastor de Lasala plays Prélude, Allemande & Courante from the suite in A Major by Jean-Odéo de Mars [1735] on a Flemish Double harpsichord made by Carey Beebe in 1988.

Fort William

View of Fort William done after the painting in the Court Room of the Company's house in Leaden Hall Street, by Elisha Kirkall, 1735

Fashion

1730-1735
In 1734 women's stays were worn extremely low. The bodies of gowns were laced up the front over a stomacher, or else stays were worn outside; but in general there is little change in feminine costume since the last decade.
Men's costume also remained almost static, although the bag-wig was steadily ousting more elaborate types of coiffure. The turned back cuffs, frequently of contrasting colour to that of the coat, were cut in "pagoda" fashion, that is to say, narrow at the wrist and expanding sharply along the forearm. The name is a sufficient indication of the slight Oriental influence which made itself felt throughout the eighteenth century, not, however, so much affecting the shape of clothes as their colour, material, and decoration.
In France about 1730 men began to fasten their breeches at the knee over the stockings, but the older mode persisted among Englishmen for some years longer. The winter of 1719 was one of exceptional severity, and fine gentlemen, finding their thin stockings an insufficient protection against the cold, wore for a few months a kind of military gaiter. Men of the lower classes, with their grey or black woollen stockings, were better protected and had no need to adopt this short-lived fashion.
The fashion of leaving the waistcoat open in front in order to display the linen has been already mentioned. The custom reached its extreme in the early thirties. Sometimes, about a foot of frilled shirt was shown - a fashion to which the modern dress shirt and low-cut waistcoat can be ultimately traced. Women's riding-habits affected, as so often, a masculine mode, the waistcoat being shorter but of the same pattern, and the hat smaller but similar in shape to those worn by men.
Men's pockets were very ample and the folds of the long coat made it possible to carry comparatively bulky objects in them without spoiling their shape. Some fashionable gentlemen would carry a whole battery of snuff-boxes in the skirts of their coats.

1735-1740
The arrival of Queen Caroline in England (for previously the Royal Court had remained in Hanover) gave a certain impulse to fashion, which had for some time languished without a leader. The Queen of George II had a great liking for flowered silks, usually with a white ground embossed all over with a large pattern of gold, silver, or colours.
George II himself had no pretensions to be a leader of fashion. His tastes were those of a simple soldier, and he had no feeling for any of the elegances of life. The ladies he honoured with his favour were neither beautiful nor elegant, and the English aristocracy went its own way, independent of the Court, adopting French fashions to its own slightly more rural use, but inventing little of its own. The prestige which English costume was to exercise all over the Continent was still more than half a century in the future.
Women of the middle classes still dressed with a certain austerity, although the wives and daughters of rich city merchants did their best to copy the fashions of St. James's. Some of the merchants themselves assumed, on Sundays, the fine coats and elaborate periwigs of the nobility.
Women's stockings, until the middle of the seventeen-thirties, were of all colours, green being one of the favourites. They were worked with clocks of gold, silver, or coloured silks. About 1737, however, there was a sudden rage for white stockings which greatly alarmed contemporary moralists. White stockings seemed to the preachers little better than nudity, but they continued to be worn until almost the end of the century. As a matter of fact very little of the stocking was seen, as dresses were never shorter in this period than to just above the ankles. Dancing or climbing into a coach may have revealed a certain amount of stocking to the eyes of the curious, but not enough, one would have thought, to alarm the most rigorous censor of morals.
1730-1740
In addition to tie-wigs of many varieties there appeared, in the reign of George II, bob-wigs of various kinds. These imitated natural hair much more closely than the grand peruques; they were worn by professional men, citizens, and even by apprentices; lawyers affected a high frontlet and a long bag at the back tied in the middle, undergraduates a wig with a flat top to allow for the academic cap.
Cravats in this period show very few modifications; in fact, although there were many varieties, each variety was almost as static as the modern neck-tie. The fronts and cuffs of shirts continued to be elaborately frilled. Coat-cuffs were wide and deep and sometimes heavily embroidered with silk flowers or with patterns in gold and silver thread.
There is little change to record in the forms of women's head-dresses. The ideal of the small, neat head was maintained; caps became even smaller than they had been, and curls more neatly trimmed and arranged. The general shape of the female figure continued to be an equilateral triangle, resting securely on a wide base. The lower part of the body was inside the skirt rather than clothed by it, the only underclothes worn being in the form of a long "smock" or chemise. The evolution of underclothes should form an interesting and necessary chapter in the history of fashion. The phrase "body-linen" is still sometimes used, but actual linen underclothes must now be extremely rare. In the eighteenth century, however, linen was the usual material, very fine Dutch linen being imported for ladies' "smocks." Scotch or Irish linen could be bought for a third of the price, but was coarser and not so highly esteemed. Silk and lace-trimmed underwear was unknown in the 18th Century.

Zenger Trial


No country values free expression more highly than does America (wriotes an American), and no case in American history stands as a greater landmark on the road to protection for freedom of the press than the trial of a German immigrant printer named John Peter Zenger. On August 5, 1735, 12 New York jurors, inspired by the eloquence of the best lawyer of the period, Andrew Hamilton, ignored the instructions of the Governor's hand-picked judges and returned a verdict of "Not Guilty" on the charge of publishing "seditious libels." The Zenger trial is a remarkable story of a divided Colony, the beginnings of a free press, and the stubborn independence of American jurors ... See more here.

Rochester, Kent

Rochester Castle and Cathedral from the north west by Nathaniel Buck, 1735

Luxembourg

From Seutter's Atlas Minor

This map was first published in Daniel de la Feuille's Atlas Portatif of 1702. It is very similar to a map published by Harrewijn in 1697. See here.