This blog attempts to collate various materials in connection with the year 1735.

20070628

Wesley's Journal 01

This is the opening entry in John Welsey's journal
Tuesday, October 14, 1735, Mr Benjamin Ingham, of Queen’s College, Oxford, Mr. Charles Delamotte, so of a merchant in London, who had offered himself some days before, my brother Charles Wesley, and myself, took boat for Gravesend, in order to embark for Georgia. Our end in leaving our native country was not to avoid want, (God having given us plenty of temporal blessings) nor to gain the dung or dross of riches or honour; but singly this, to save our souls; to live wholly to the glory of God. In the afternoon we found the Simmonds off Gravesend and immediately went on board.
Wednesday and Thursday we spent with one or two of our friends, partly on board and partly on shore, in exhorting one another “to shake off every weight, and to run with patience the race set before us.”

Whitefield Letter 2

LETTER VI
Oxon, March 6, 1735
Dear Sir,

I Had the favour of your letter by Mr. H. and, as desired, I have made enquiry about the post-masters and clerks of Merton. As to the former, I hear, that the five senior fellows have each a power to elect one in his turn, and that there is now a vacancy, but one ready on the spot to supply it, and no likelihood of there being another this long while. The latter are solely in the power of the warden, and though all the places are at present filled up, yet, there will be a vacancy next term, so that, perhaps, by a seasonable application, your brother may get a friend in. Thus much for business.
As for the other particulars, specified in the latter part of your last I find by what I can gather from your own and my brother’s expressions, as well as from Mr. H.’s discourse, that my late letters have met with but a cold reception; and that you seem desirous of hearing no more of so seemingly ungrateful a subject, as submitting our wills to the will of GOD; which, indeed, is all that is implied in that phrase (which our enemy would represent as so formidable to us) of renouncing ourselves. Alas, Sir! what is there that appears so monstrously terrible in a doctrine that is, (or at least ought to be) the constant subject of our prayers, whenever we put up that petition of our LORD’S: “Thy will be done in earth, as it is in Heaven.” The import of which seems to be this. That we do every thing that GOD wills, and nothing but what he willeth. 2dly, That we do every thing he wills, only in the manner he willeth. 3dly, That we do those things he willeth, only because he willeth. This is all, Sir, I have been endeavouring to inculcate in my late letters; and though it seems as clear as the light, upon an impartial and considerate view, yet, our grand impostor (whose very corruption is having a will distinct from, and therefore contrary to GOD’S) would fain set it out in the most hideous colours, as though we were setters forth of strange doctrines; or proposing same higher degrees of persecution, than every ordinary christian is obliged to aspire after; whereas, in truth, it is nothing but the simple and evident language of the gospel. It must be confessed, that through the corruption of our depraved nature, and that power, which self-will has, since the Fall, usurped in the soul, we must necessarily break through a great many obstacles. But, dear Sir, be not dismayed, the difficulty lies only in our first setting out. Be but vigorous at the first onset, and never fear a conquest. The renewal of our natures is a work of great importance. It is not to be done in a day, We have not only a new house to build up, but an old one to pull down. But then, methinks, this would be an odd way of reasoning, “Because a thing requires some pains, I therefore will never set about it.” No, Sir, rather up and be doing. Exert your utmost efforts at your first setting out, and take my word, your strength as well as resolution will increase daily. The means also which are necessary to be used in order to attain this end, our cursed adversary the devil would represent to us in the most hideous forms imaginable, But believe me, Sir, the difficulty here too, only lies in our first breaking from ourselves, and that there is really more pleasure in these formidable duties of self-denial and mortification, than in the highest indulgences of the greatest epicure upon earth. Give me leave, dear Sir, only to remind you of one particular, which, if duly observed, will vastly facilitate your future endeavours. Let the scriptures, not the world, be your rule of action. By those you are to form your practice here, and to be judged hereafter. Upon this account, for the future, I should be glad, if you would communicate what passes between you and me, to none but my brother and your spouse. And if you have any the least scruple, be pleased to send me word of it by a letter in an open, friendly manner; and, by God’s blessing, all things will be yet set right; only be fervent in prayer. As for what the Rev. Mr. Hoar has been pleased to say, either to you or Mr. H. it is not my business (out of deference, as he is so much my superior, as to the dignity of his office, his age, and his learning) to make any reply. I shall only add, what I am sure I can prove, That “the gospel tells us that there is but one thing needful. That we cannot sit down content with just such a degree of goodness, and claim just such a proportionable degree of “glory;” but that “we are to love the LORD with all our souls, strength, &c.” and that “he who endureth to the end, (and he only) shall be saved.””
There is a little treatise lately come out, which I have made bold to send to Mr; Hoar, where we may be fully convinced by argument deducible merely from reason, “that GOD is our sole end,” and that barely upon a principle of prudence, (supposing we could be happy without it) we ought to press forward, in order to attain the greatest degrees of happiness hereafter. Whether this letter, Sir, may prove as offensive as the former, is not my business to enquire, GOD’s will be done in all things. He, and he alone can (and indeed will, if we are desirous of it ourselves) work this conviction in our minds. Give me leave just to add, that I thought it my duty to answer these few objections, that have been raised against the difficulty of conforming our wills to the will of God, by showing that the greatest struggle lies only at our first beginning, and that it is no more than what is indispensably necessary for our salvation. As for the means to be employed for the attainment of this end, I shall be wholly silent: Being sensible, that if you are once fully convinced of the greatness of it, you will be necessarily carried on to the use of such means as GOD hath constituted for that purpose. I hope my writing after this manner, Sir, will not be esteemed a piece of self-conceit, or be an instrument of unloosing our former bond of friendship, which was once designed to be bound the faster, by tying it with a religious knot. But whether this proves to be the event, or not, of my telling my friends the truth, I wholly leave to GOD’s Providence. Be pleased however to favour me with a line in return, and give me leave to subscribe myself, Dear Sir,
Your sincere friend and most obliged humble servant,
G W

Whitefield Letter 1


One of the great events of 1735 was the conversion of the evangelist George Whitefield (1714-1770). This is a letter he wrote early in that year.
(LETTER V in Letters)
Oxon, Feb. 20, 1735
Dear Sir,
I Believe you think me a strange sort of a person, for not being so good as my word in coming down this Winter; and what is worse, in not letting you have a line to acquaint you of my reasons for it. And, indeed, I am not as yet determined; providence having ordered (I hope) that this seeming unkindness shall, in the end, prove very serviceable on all sides. However, though I have been thus hindered, yet, I think you heard from me last, and am really surprised to find you should, now so long since, have desired that collection of prayers, and be wholly unconcerned about them ever after. Indeed, they will be of no service to you, unless you grant me this one postulatum : “That we must renounce ourselves.” What the meaning of this phrase may be, the preface to the prayers will best inform you. I did not doubt of its meeting with but a cold reception, it being (at first view) so very contrary to flesh and blood. For, perhaps, you may think, that this renouncing of ourselves, must necessarily lead us (as it certainly does) to acts of self-denial and mortification; and, that we probably may be saved without them. And lest you should after all imagine, (which I trust you will not) that true religion does consist in any thing, besides an entire renewal of our natures into the image of God; I have sent you a book entitled, The Life of GOD in the Soul of Man,* written by a young, but an eminent Christian, which will inform you, what true religion is, and by what means you may attain it. As likewise, how wretchedly most people err in their sentiments about it, who suppose it to be nothing else (as he tells us page 3d) but a mere model of outward performances; without ever considering, that all our corrupt passions must be subdued, and a complex habit of virtues, such as meekness, lowliness, faith, hope, and the love of GOD and of man, be implanted in their room, before we can have the least title to enter into the kingdom of GOD. Our divine master having expressly told us, that “unless we renounce ourselves, and take up our cross daily, we cannot be his disciples.” And again, unless we have the spirit of CHRIST, we are none of his.” You will scarce have time, I imagine, before Mr. H. leaves Gloucester, to revile, what I have recommended to your perusal. However, be pleased to let me hear from you by him, together with an account of your free sentiments about this matter. I trust (by GOD’s grace) we shall, at last, rightly understand one another’s meaning. I should be glad to hear too, whether you keep morning prayers, and how often you receive the holy communion, there being nothing, which so much be-dwarfs us in religion, and hinders our progress towards the heavenly Canaan, as starving our souls by keeping away from the heavenly banquet. I have nothing more to add at present on this subject, till you favour me with a line, which, I hope, you will not cease doing by Mr. H. who will willingly bring it to,
Dear Sir,
Your sincere friend and very humble servant,
G W
* By Henry Scougal (1650-1678)

Al Bithna Fort UAE

Built in 1735 near Al Bithna Village, Fujeirah, now in the Unite Arab Emirates (UAE), the fort has guarded the strategic route across the Hajar Mountains throught Wadi Ham since the 18th Century and was considered the most important fort in the eastern part of UAE.

Botanical Gardens Mauritius

The Royal Botanical Gardens of Pamplemousses is apparently the highlight of any visit to the north of Mauritius . These world famous gardens were renamed Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam Botanical Gardens in 1988 in honour of the late Prime Minister but many locals still refer to them by the former name.
Pamplemousses is believed to have taken its name from a citrus plant commonly called the pamplemoucier which was imported by the Dutch from Java. The fruit which grows in the area is thick skinned and bitter and resembles a large grapefruit. The Tamils call it the bambolmas and it is believed that this is the origin of the French word pamplemousse or grapefruit. Parking is available close to the main entrance gate, admission is free
The white wrought iron railings and gates won first prize in the International Exhibition in 1862 at Crystal Palace in London. The garden's origins go back to 1735 when Labourdonnais bought a house in the grounds which he called Mon Plaisir. What began as a humble self sufficient vegetable garden developed into a major fresh food source for ships calling at Port Louis. More here.

20070626

The Library



This illustration was the frontispiece to a book published in Leipzig in 1735

More new drama

Henry Carey - The Honest Yorkshireman
Charlotte Charke - The Art of Management
Robert Dodsley - The Toyshop
William Duncombe - Junius Brutus
Henry Fielding - An Old Man Taught Wisdom
- The Universal Gallant
James Miller - The Man of Taste
Lewis Theobald - The Fatal Secret

More New Books

Anonymous - The Dramatic Historiographer (attrib. Eliza Haywood)
George Berkeley - The Querist (the same as the work mentioned previously?)
Jane Brereton - Merlin
Henry Brooke - Universal Beauty
Robert Dodsley - Beauty
Benjamin Hoadly - A Plain Account of the Nature and End of the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper
John Hughes - Poems
Hildebrand Jacob - Brutus the Trojan and Works
Samuel Johnson - A Voyage to Abyssinia
George Lyttelton, 1st Baron Lyttelton - Letters from a Persian in England
William Melmoth - Of Active and Retired Life
John Oldmixon - History of England, During the Reigns of William and Mary, Anne, George I
Alexander Pope - An Epistle from Mr. Pope to Dr Arbuthnot (just after Arbuthnot's death)
Of the Characters of Women ("Moral Epistle II")
The Works of Mr Alexander Pope
Letters of Mr Pope, and Several Eminent Persons (a piracy by Edmund Curll, with forgeries included)
Mr Pope's Literary Correspondence for Thirty Years, 1704-1734 (authorised)
Samuel Richardson - A Seasonable Examination of the Pleas and Pretensions of the Proprietors of, and Subscribers to, Play-Houses
Henry St John - A Dissertation upon Parties
Richard Savage - The Progress of a Divine
William Somerville - The Chace
Jonathan Swift, Pope, Arbuthnot, et al. - Miscellanies in Prose and Verse: Volume the Fifth
and Works
James Thomson - Ancient and Modern Italy Compared, Greece, Rome

Est. 1735

Amelia County, Virginia – named for George II's daughter
Blancpain – Swiss watch manufacturer
Bristol Royal Infirmary
Edial Hall School - by Samuel Johnson. It had only three pupils. One was the actor David Garrick.
Frederiksberg Palace, Denmark
Order of St. Anna – Holstein then Russian chivalric order. Motto “To those who love justice, piety, and fidelity”
The Royal Burgess Golfing Society of Edinburgh – the world's oldest
University of Miskolc – In Northern Hungary, founded as The University of Mining and Metallurgy of Selmecbánya, the first non-ecclesiastical school in the Habsburg Empire.

Indian Freemasons

The first Freemason Lodge in India was formed in Kolkata in 1735. It spread to Mumbai and then to other parts of India. Currently there are 352 lodges under the Grand Lodge of India. Notable Indian Freemasons include Swami Vivekananda, Motilal Nehru, JRD Tata, Rajendra Prasad and S Radhakrishnan.

20070622

Robe a la francaise


This “Robe a la francaise,” a gown featuring brocaded pale yellow silk taffeta — from France or Italy, circa 1735, is on a fashion blog here.

20070620

Henry Hope

Henry Hope (1735-1811) was an Amsterdam merchant banker born in Boston. He had a great art collection. More here.

20070619

Maurice Quentin de la Tour


Self-portrait 1735 by Maurice Quentin de la Tour (1704-1788) in the Uffizi Collection

Greek New Testament

Greek NT of 1735

Michel Nicolas Bernard Lépicié



This painting is by the French painter, draftsman, and professor Michel Nicolas Bernard Lépicié who was born June 16, 1735. He died Sep 14, 1784.

20070614

John Harrison




Constructed between 1730 and 1735, John Harrison's Marine Chronometer number 1 (H1) was essentially a portable version of his precision wooden clocks. It is spring-driven and only runs for one day (the wooden clocks run for 8). The moving parts are controlled and counterbalanced by springs so that, unlike a pendulum clock, H1 is independent of the direction of gravity.
H1 was brought to London in 1735 and displayed to the scientific community. Harrison was beseiged by requests from both scientists and socialites to see the timekeeper.
The following year, Harrison and his timekeeper travelled to Lisbon aboard the ship Centurion to test the clock, and returned on the Orford. H1 performed well in the trial, keeping time accurately enough for Harrison to correct a misreading of the Orford's longitude on the return voyage. However, Harrison did not ask for a second trial but, instead, requested financial assistance from the Board of Longitude to make a second marine timekeeper.

Prélude, Allemande & Courante in A


Pastor de Lasala plays Prélude, Allemande & Courante from the suite in A Major by Jean-Odéo de Mars [1735] on a Flemish Double harpsichord made by Carey Beebe in 1988.

Fort William

View of Fort William done after the painting in the Court Room of the Company's house in Leaden Hall Street, by Elisha Kirkall, 1735

Fashion

1730-1735
In 1734 women's stays were worn extremely low. The bodies of gowns were laced up the front over a stomacher, or else stays were worn outside; but in general there is little change in feminine costume since the last decade.
Men's costume also remained almost static, although the bag-wig was steadily ousting more elaborate types of coiffure. The turned back cuffs, frequently of contrasting colour to that of the coat, were cut in "pagoda" fashion, that is to say, narrow at the wrist and expanding sharply along the forearm. The name is a sufficient indication of the slight Oriental influence which made itself felt throughout the eighteenth century, not, however, so much affecting the shape of clothes as their colour, material, and decoration.
In France about 1730 men began to fasten their breeches at the knee over the stockings, but the older mode persisted among Englishmen for some years longer. The winter of 1719 was one of exceptional severity, and fine gentlemen, finding their thin stockings an insufficient protection against the cold, wore for a few months a kind of military gaiter. Men of the lower classes, with their grey or black woollen stockings, were better protected and had no need to adopt this short-lived fashion.
The fashion of leaving the waistcoat open in front in order to display the linen has been already mentioned. The custom reached its extreme in the early thirties. Sometimes, about a foot of frilled shirt was shown - a fashion to which the modern dress shirt and low-cut waistcoat can be ultimately traced. Women's riding-habits affected, as so often, a masculine mode, the waistcoat being shorter but of the same pattern, and the hat smaller but similar in shape to those worn by men.
Men's pockets were very ample and the folds of the long coat made it possible to carry comparatively bulky objects in them without spoiling their shape. Some fashionable gentlemen would carry a whole battery of snuff-boxes in the skirts of their coats.

1735-1740
The arrival of Queen Caroline in England (for previously the Royal Court had remained in Hanover) gave a certain impulse to fashion, which had for some time languished without a leader. The Queen of George II had a great liking for flowered silks, usually with a white ground embossed all over with a large pattern of gold, silver, or colours.
George II himself had no pretensions to be a leader of fashion. His tastes were those of a simple soldier, and he had no feeling for any of the elegances of life. The ladies he honoured with his favour were neither beautiful nor elegant, and the English aristocracy went its own way, independent of the Court, adopting French fashions to its own slightly more rural use, but inventing little of its own. The prestige which English costume was to exercise all over the Continent was still more than half a century in the future.
Women of the middle classes still dressed with a certain austerity, although the wives and daughters of rich city merchants did their best to copy the fashions of St. James's. Some of the merchants themselves assumed, on Sundays, the fine coats and elaborate periwigs of the nobility.
Women's stockings, until the middle of the seventeen-thirties, were of all colours, green being one of the favourites. They were worked with clocks of gold, silver, or coloured silks. About 1737, however, there was a sudden rage for white stockings which greatly alarmed contemporary moralists. White stockings seemed to the preachers little better than nudity, but they continued to be worn until almost the end of the century. As a matter of fact very little of the stocking was seen, as dresses were never shorter in this period than to just above the ankles. Dancing or climbing into a coach may have revealed a certain amount of stocking to the eyes of the curious, but not enough, one would have thought, to alarm the most rigorous censor of morals.
1730-1740
In addition to tie-wigs of many varieties there appeared, in the reign of George II, bob-wigs of various kinds. These imitated natural hair much more closely than the grand peruques; they were worn by professional men, citizens, and even by apprentices; lawyers affected a high frontlet and a long bag at the back tied in the middle, undergraduates a wig with a flat top to allow for the academic cap.
Cravats in this period show very few modifications; in fact, although there were many varieties, each variety was almost as static as the modern neck-tie. The fronts and cuffs of shirts continued to be elaborately frilled. Coat-cuffs were wide and deep and sometimes heavily embroidered with silk flowers or with patterns in gold and silver thread.
There is little change to record in the forms of women's head-dresses. The ideal of the small, neat head was maintained; caps became even smaller than they had been, and curls more neatly trimmed and arranged. The general shape of the female figure continued to be an equilateral triangle, resting securely on a wide base. The lower part of the body was inside the skirt rather than clothed by it, the only underclothes worn being in the form of a long "smock" or chemise. The evolution of underclothes should form an interesting and necessary chapter in the history of fashion. The phrase "body-linen" is still sometimes used, but actual linen underclothes must now be extremely rare. In the eighteenth century, however, linen was the usual material, very fine Dutch linen being imported for ladies' "smocks." Scotch or Irish linen could be bought for a third of the price, but was coarser and not so highly esteemed. Silk and lace-trimmed underwear was unknown in the 18th Century.

Zenger Trial


No country values free expression more highly than does America (wriotes an American), and no case in American history stands as a greater landmark on the road to protection for freedom of the press than the trial of a German immigrant printer named John Peter Zenger. On August 5, 1735, 12 New York jurors, inspired by the eloquence of the best lawyer of the period, Andrew Hamilton, ignored the instructions of the Governor's hand-picked judges and returned a verdict of "Not Guilty" on the charge of publishing "seditious libels." The Zenger trial is a remarkable story of a divided Colony, the beginnings of a free press, and the stubborn independence of American jurors ... See more here.

Rochester, Kent

Rochester Castle and Cathedral from the north west by Nathaniel Buck, 1735

Luxembourg

From Seutter's Atlas Minor

This map was first published in Daniel de la Feuille's Atlas Portatif of 1702. It is very similar to a map published by Harrewijn in 1697. See here.

Ladies Shoes


English brocade silver buckle shoes
"The fashionable 18th Century women's shoe was a frankly luxurious and feminine accessory. Ladies of quality wore shoes of rich dress silks which might, but did not necessarily, match their gowns. Made as "straights," that is without a designated left or right shoe." Cora Ginsburg

"The passion for wearing silks spread to women's shoes in the 18th Century. Until the 1790s, very little leather was used for women's footwear, except boots for outdoors. The curved heel and pointed up-turned toe of this shoe are typical of women's shoes in this period." V&A


Brocaded Spitalfields silk uppers

Witchcraft act


England's most notorious Witchcraft Act, making witchcraft a felony, was passed early in the reign of Elizabeth I (1563) and was strengthened in 1604 by her successor James I.
A new witchcraft act was passed under George II in 1735. It marked a complete reversal in previous attitudes. No longer were people to be hanged for consorting with evil spirits. Rather, a person who pretended to have the power to call up spirits, or foretell the future, or cast spells, or discover the whereabouts of stolen goods was to be punished as a vagrant and a con artist, subject to fines and imprisonment.
In 1944, Helen Duncan was the last person to be jailed under this act, on the grounds that she had pretended to summon spirits . She spent nine months in prison. She was not, as is frequently stated, the last person to be convicted under the act this as Jane Rebecca Yorke was convicted later that year. The the last threatened use of the Act against a medium was in 1950. In 1951 the Act was repealed with the enactment of the Fraudulent Mediums Act 1951, largely at the instigation of Spiritualists through the agency of Thomas Brooks MP.
It is widely suggested that astrology was covered by the Witchcraft Act. From the 1930s onwards many tabloid newspapers and magazines carried astrology columns but none were ever prosecuted. The Witchcraft Act was still legally in force in the Republic of Ireland, although it never was actually applied. Most old English laws were repealed 16 May 1983.

20070611

Plan of Bath

Plan drawing of Bath 1735. See here.

State Leaders

Africa
Ashanti Confederacy - Opoku Ware I, Asantehene
(1720-1750)
Bunyoro - Duhaga, Omukama of Bunyoro (1731-c.1782)
Dahomey - Tegbesu, King of Dahomey (1732-1774)
Ethiopia - Iyasu II, Emperor of Ethiopia, (1730-1755)
Nkore - Macwa, Omugabe of Nkole, (c.1727-c.1755)
Zulu - Mageba kaPhunga, King of the Zulu (1727-1745)
Asia
China (Qing Dynasty) -
1.Yongzheng, Emperor of China (1723-1735)
2.Qianlong, Emperor of China (1735-1796)
Japan
1.Monarch -
1.Nakamikado, Emperor of Japan (1709-1735)
2.Sakuramachi, Emperor of Japan (1735-1747)
2.Shogun (Tokugawa) - Tokugawa Yoshimune, Shogun of Japan (1716-1745)
3.Ryūkyū Kingdom - Shō Kei, King of Ryūkyū (1713-1751)
Korea (Joseon Dynasty) - Yeongjo, King of Joseon (1724-1776)

Europe
Denmark -
Monarch - Christian VI, King of Denmark (1730-1746) [see pic]
Prime Minister -
1.Ivar Eriksen Rosencrantz, Minister of State of Denmark (1730-1735)
2.Johan Ludvig, Minister of State of Denmark (1735-1751)
France - Louis XV, King of France (1715-1774)
Great Britain -
Monarch - George II, King of Great Britain (1727-1760)
Prime Minister - Robert Walpole, Prime Minister of Great Britain (1721-1742)
Holy Roman Empire - Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor (1711-1740)\
Hesse-Kassel - Frederick I, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, also King of Sweden (1730-1751)
Saxony - Frederick Augustus II Elector of Saxony (from 1733 to 1763) (also King of Poland)
Portugal - John V, King of Portugal (1706-1750)
Prussia - Frederick William I, King of Prussia (1713-1740)
Russia - Anna Ivanovna, Tsaritsa of Russia (1730-1740)
Spain - Philip V, King of Spain (1700-1724, 1724-1746)
Sweden - Age of Liberty
Monarch - Frederick I, King of Sweden, also Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (1720-1751)
Prime Minister - Arvid Horn, President of the Privy Council Chancellery (1710-1738)
United Provinces -
Estates of Friesland, Groningen, Guelders, Holland, Overijssel, Utrecht, Zeeland (1581-1795)
Grand Pensionary of Holland - Simon van Slingelandt (1727-1736)
1. Friesland - Willem IV, Stadtholder of Friesland (1711-1751)
2. Groningen - Willem IV, Stadtholder of Groningen (1729-1751)
3. Guelders - Willem IV, Stadtholder of Guelders (1722-1751)
Venice - Alvise Pisani Doge of Venice (1735-1741)

Middle East and North Africa
Morocco - 1. Abdallah, Sultan of Morocco (1729-1735)
2. Ali, Sultan of Morocco (1735-1736)
Ottoman Empire -
Monarch - Mahmud I, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1730-1754)
Grand Vizier - 1. Hekimoglu Ali Pasha, Ottoman Grand Vizier (1732-1735)
2. Gürcü Ismail Pasha, Ottoman Grand Vizier (1735)
Tunis - Ali I, Bey of Tunis (1735-1756)
From Wikipedia here

20070608

Native American Chief

In 1735 Swedish artist Gustavus Hesselius completed this portrait of Minisink chief Tishcohan, who would later sign the Walking Purchase, for John Penn, the colonial's propriety and a grandson of William Penn. See here.

The Wesleys etc

The Renewed Moravian Church consecrates its first bishop in the person of David Nitschmann, restoring its own ministry separate from that of Nikolaus, graf von Zinzendorf. Zinzendorf sends missionaries to Britain's Georgia colony, where they will have little or no success.

John Wesley and his brother Charles lose their father (April 25) and embark in October for the Georgia colony with two other Methodists, a party of German Moravians sent by Zinzendorf and George E Oglethorpe, who had returned to England in 1734 and would not remain long at Savannah. The Simmonds encounters storms en route and John Wesley finds his fears greater than his faith. He later provoked criticism at Savannah but began the first Methodist society, and although his brother Charles soon returned to England, John remained for nearly 2 years.
Meanwhile in Swaffham, Norfolk, Robert Robinson, author of "Come Thou Fount of every blessing" and "Mighty God, while angels bless Thee", a methodist and later Strict Baptist minister was born, on Sep 27.

Lancret's Party

Lancret's Luncheon party or Pleasure party

Boy with a top

Chardin's 1735 Boy with a top (oil on canvas)

Art

Painting
The Pleasure Party by Nicolas Lancret (1690-1743)
A Rake's Progress by William Hogarth (1697-1794) completed (he began his eight scenes in 1732)
Also his
The Good Samaritan?
The orgy
The Distressed Poet
Parliament passes a Copyright Act (Hogarth Act) to protect artists against pirating of their work in cheap copies. Hogarth had withheld his Rake's Progress pending enactment of the new legislation.
Boy with a Top by Jean-Baptiste Simeon Chardin (1699-1779)

Panama



Negotitaing the Chagres River, Panama, 1735. See here.

John Adams

This is John Adams who was born on October 30 and went on to become the second American president (and is not to be confused with John Quincy Adams, the sixth president).

Yung-ch'êng


HM Emperor Yung-ch'êng [Shih Tsung Hien Huang Ti] [Ching Ch'ang Yün Chien Chung Piao Chêng Wên Wu Ying Ming K'uan Jên Hsin I Jui Sh'êng Ta Hsiao Chih Ch'êng Hsien], the Great Illustrious Emperor of the Great Ch'ing Dynasty, Son of Heaven, Lord of Myriad Years, etc, died in 1735 having reigned since 1722.
Born December 13 1678, educ privately. Granted rank of To Lo Pei Lê 1698, prom to title of Ho Shê Ch'in Wang Yung, 1709. Proclaimed after the death of his father, December 20, 1722.
Married 24 wives, including
(1) HM Empress Hsiao Ching Hsien (1681-1731), raised to title of Empress January 17, 1724, received posthumous title Hsiao Ching Hsien January 7, 1732, daughter of Fiyanggu, Tch'eng-ngen-kong, of the Ulanara clan.
(2) At Peking, 1705, HM Empress Hsiao Sheng Hsien (1693-1777) granted title Ko Ko, 1705, prom to HsiiFei, 1723, to HsiiKuei Fei January 17, 1724, to Dowager Empress with title of Hsiao Chong Ching Huang T'ai Hou, January 10, 1736, and finally to posthumous title Hsiao Sheng Chih Hsuan Kang Hui Tun He Cheng Hui Renmu Ching Tian Kuang Sheng Hsien, April 23, 1777, daughter of Ling-chu, 1st Prince (Yideng Cheng En Kung) Liangrong, of Manchu Bordered Yellow Banner Corps, granddaughter of Eidu, of the Niuhuru clan.
He died in the Garden of Perfection and Brightness, Yuanming Park, Peking, October 8, 1735 (bur East Tai-ling Mausoleum, Hebei), having had issue, 10 sons and 4 daughters.

The Soapmaker

The soapmaker by the German Martin Engelbrecht (1684-1756), c 1735. See here.

Tellicherry

Mezzotint with engraving of a view of Tellicherry (Thalasseri) by Elisha Kirkall (1682-1742) published by John Bowles in 1735 after a painting in East India House by George Lambert (1710-65). Tellicherry is situated south of Cannanore in Kerala. It was founded in 1683 by the East India Company and became the major trading centre for pepper and cardamom in India. Trade was controlled from the fort in the town, which is seen in the left of this view and was built by the British in 1708.
See here.

Music

Maurice Greene (1696-1755) appointed Master of the King's Musick

ClassicalJ S Bach
Concerto nach Italienischen Gust
Overture nach Französischer Art
Wilhelm Friedemann Bach (1710-1784) 3 Fugues for Organ with PedalJan Dismas Zelenka (1679-1745) Gesù al Calvario (oratorio)

OperaEgidio Romualdo Duni (1708-1775) Nerone
George Frideric Handel (all at Covent Garen)
Jan 8 Ariodante with Anna Maria Strada del Pò singing the role of Genebra, Marie Sallé dancing.
17 Apr Alcina with Sallé appearing dressed as a man (audience shows its dispproval of her attire)
Also revivals:
5 Mar Esther, inc 2 new organ concertos: Op 4 No 2 & No 3. (6 performances to 21 Mar)
26 Mar Deborah (3 performances to 31 Mar). Cast inc Anna Maria Strada del Pò (soprano) lead role, Cecilia Young (soprano) Jael plus Henry Theodore Reinhold (alto part, bass) John Beard (tenor) Hussey (bass). Included new organ concerto, Op 4 No 5.
1 Apr Athalia (with Italian arias) (5 performances to 12 Apr). Cast inc Cecilia Young (soprano; later Mrs. Arne) lead role, Anna Maria Strada del Pò (soprano) Josabeth, William Savage (boy alto) Joas, Giovanni Carestini, called "Cusanino" (mezzo-soprano castrato) Joad, John Beard (tenor) Mathan, Gustavus Waltz (bass) Abner. Included new organ concerto, Op 4 No 4.
Leonardo Leo (1694-1744) DemofoonteGiovanni Battista Pergolesi (1710-1736) Jan 9 Olimpiade at Rome's Theatre Tordinona
Jean-Philippe Rameau (1683-1764) Aug 23 Les Indes galantes (opéra-ballet) at Paris opera

BirthsJan 21 Johann Gottfried Eckard (d 1809)
Jun 6 Anton Schweitzer (d 1787)
[Sep 5 J C Bach (d 1782)]

DeathsJan 12 John Eccles (b 1668)
Mar 24 - Georg Friedrich Kaufmann, organist and composer (b 1679)
July 18 - Johann Krieger (b 1649)

20070607

Literature

Samuel Johnson (1709-1784) marries Elizabeth "Tetty" Porter, 20 years his senior

New books
Le Doyen de Killerine Abbé Antoine François Prévost (1697-1763)
The Christian Hero George Lillo (1693-1739) British playwright and tragedian. Very little is known of him except that he was a London jeweller as well as a dramatist
Gil Blas (L'Histoire de Gil Blas de Santillana) Alain-René Le Sage (1668-1747) whose four-volume pioneer picaresque novel appeared in its first volume 20 years before and is based in part on the 1618 novel by the late Vicente Espinel
Les Memoires de Comte Comminges French courtesan and novelist Claudine-Alexandrine Guerin de Tencin (1682-1749) who came to Paris 1714 after having lived a religious life. She attracted a string of lovers with her wit and beauty and used her influence to further the fortunes of her older brother Cardinal Pierre Guérin de Tencin, who died 1724. Imprisoned briefly in the Bastille after one of her lovers shot himself in her house, 1726, she went on to maintain one of the most glittering salons in Paris.

New drama
The Art of Management
Charlotte Charke (née Cibber, also Charlotte Secheverell, aka Charles Brown) (1713–1760) English actress
The Toyshop Robert Dodsley (1703-1764) English bookseller and miscellaneous writer

Nonfiction
A Defence of Free-Thinking in Mathematics George Berkeley (1685-1753)

Poetry
Liberty James Thomson, whose political poem traces the history of civil and religious freedom
The Chace Staffordshire-born poet and country gentleman William Somerville, 59, whose verses trace the history of hunting up to the time of the Norman Conquest, providing information on breeding and training dogs, kennel design and hunting hare, otter, and stag

Births
Jul 5 - August Ludwig von Schlözer (d 1809) German historian who laid foundations for the critical study of Russian history
Dec 31 – Michelle Guyillaume Jean de Crèvecoeur, French-American writer commonly known as Hector St John de Crèvecoeur (d 1813)
James Beattie (d 1803) Scottish academic and writer.
Charles Joseph, Prince de Ligne, soldier and writer (d 1814)

Deaths
As mentioned before - John Arbuthnot in London and Samuel Wesley

Five More Events

These are from Brainy History here

Feb 18 - 1st opera performed in America, Flora in Charleston
March 13 - 1st American Moravian bishop, David Nitschmann, consecrated in Germany
Aug 18 - Evening Post begins to be published in Boston
Sep 22 - Robert Walpole is 1st British Prime Minister to live at 10 Downing Street
Nov 30 - States of Holland forbid freemasonry

Hebrew Grammar

This is the title page to the first Hebrew Grammar published in America. It is by a convert to Christianity called Judah Monis.

Don Quixote


An editon of Cervantes' 1605 Spanish classic Don Quixote

Pilsen

This is Plzen or Pilsen, on the River Radbuza, today in the Czech Republic

Native Americans


It would be another generation and a half before a second image of the Inoca would be created. In 1735 a French artist, Alexander de Batz (1685-1737), created this water colour. Caption "Indians of several Nations bound for New Orleans 1735." The seated female is labeled "Renard female Indian slave" (Mesquakie) and note the presence of the "Negro" (African) child (this is the earliest depiction of an African associated with the Pay du Illinois). The adult male to the right of the African child is labeled "Atakapas" (a native society from the Gulf Coast of Louisiana and Texas). All others in the image are "Illinois." The man standing to the left is labeled "Chief" while the crouching male is labeled "Dancer." (Peabody Museum, Harvard)

Some deaths

Wikipedia again

Jan 12 - John Eccles, British composer (b 1668)
Jan 18 - Maria Clementina Sobieski, Polish princess (b 1702)
Feb 27 - John Arbuthnot, British physician and author (b 1667)
Apr 5 - William Derham, English minister and writer (b 1657)
Apr 25 - Samuel Wesley, Religious leader and poet, father of John & Charles (b 1662)
Jun 10 - Thomas Hearne, British antiquarian (b 1678)
Sep 27 - Peter Artedi, Swedish naturalist (drowned) (b 1705)
Oct 08 – Yongzheng, Emperor of China (b 1678)
Dec 14 - Thomas Tanner, English bishop and antiquarian (b 1674)

Some births

Wikipedia highlights these
Jan 1 - Paul Revere, American silversmith and patriot (d 1818)
Jan 8 -
John Carroll (priest) first RC Archbishop in US (d 1815)
John Jervis, 1st Earl of St Vincent, British Royal Navy admiral (d 1823)
Jan 27 - Étienne Clavière, French financier and politician (d 1793)
Feb 28 - Alexandre-Théophile Vandermonde French musician and chemist (d 1796)
Apr 13 - Isaac Low, New York delegate to the Continental Congress (d 1791)
May 1 - Lorenzo Hervás y Panduro Spanish Jesuit philologist (d 1809)
May 23 - Charles Joseph, Prince de Ligne (d 1814)
Sep 5 - Johann Christian Bach, German composer (d 1782)
Sep 20 - James Keir, Scottish geologist, chemist, and industrialist (d 1820)
Sep 28 - Augustus FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton, Prime Minister of the UK (d 1811)
Oct 1 - Augustus Henry Fitzroy, 3rd Duke of Grafton (d 1811)
Oct 9 - Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick (d 1806)
Oct 21 - Richard Gough, English antiquary (d 1809)
Oct 30- John Adams, 2nd President of the United States (d 1826)
Nov 10 - Granville Sharp, English abolitionist (d 1813)
Dec 29 - Thomas Banks, English sculptor and artist (d 1805)
Dec 31 - Jean de Crévecoeur, French-American writer (d 1813)
Date unknown - John Julius Angerstein, English merchant and insurer (d 1822)

More events

Wikipedia also lists these undated events

1. The Russo-Turkish War of 1735-1739, Russian forces fail to occupy the Crimea due to rasputitsa
2. The French make peace with the Austro-Hungarian Empire (lasts until 1740)
3. The ship building industry begins in Mumbai, India
4. End of the reign of Emperor Nakamikado, Japan
5. The King's highway Charleston-Boston, America, completed
6. Construction of the Chemin du roy Quebec-Montreal begins
7. Global circulation correctly explained for the first time by George Hadley
8. Carolus Linnaeus publishes his Systema Naturae
9. Etienne Fourmont writes Reflexions critiques sur les histoires des anciens peuples
10. William Hogarth publishes A Rake's Progress
11. Edmund Curll tries to publish "Mr Pope's Literary Correspondence", the stock of which is subsequently seized
12. Augusta, Georgia founded

Intro

According to Wikipedia the year 1735 (MDCCXXXV) was a common year (ie one of 365 days)starting on a Saturday of the Gregorian Calendar.
The significant events of the year they list include
April 13 - Japan Emperor Sakuramachi accedes to throne
April 16 - London premiere of Alcina by G F Handel, his first Italian opera for the Royal opera House, Covent Garden
August 4 - New York, New York Weekly Journal writer John Peter Zenger acquitted of seditious libel against the royal governor, on the basis that what he published was true.
October - China, Qianlong Emperor succeeds Yongzheng and begins 60 year reign of Qing dynasty
Poland, War of Polish Succession concludes a preliminary peace (ratified 1738)
Of more interest to me is that this was the year of the conversion of George Whitefield and Hywel Harris and probably Daniel Rowland and that John Wesley began his famous journal (he and Charles were probably converted in 1738) and the Great Awakening was beginning in America.