This blog attempts to collate various materials in connection with the year 1735.


Mathematical calculations suggest that it is on 11 July 1735 that the dwarf planet Pluto moved inside the orbit of Neptune for the last time before 1979.


Death of Cassandra Willoughby Brydges, Duchess of Chandos

Cassandra Willoughby, Duchess of Chandos (1670-1735) was an English historian, travel writer and artist. She was the daughter of Francis Willoughby of Wollaton, Nottinghamshire, a Fellow of the Royal Society and a writer on natural history, and his wife Emma, the daughter of Sir Henry Barnard of Bridgnorth, Shropshire and London.
When her 19-year-old brother Francis disagreed with his stepfather's handling of his finances, Cassandra accompanied him in 1687 to the Willoughby family's earlier seat, Wollaton Hall in Nottinghamshire: "This proposall [of her brother's] I was much delighted with, thinking it would be no small pleasure for me to be Mrs of Wollaton, and to doe whatever I had a mind to." She then oversaw restoration of the gardens and rebuilding of the house over a quarter of a century.
In 1713, at the age of 43, Cassandra married her wealthy cousin, James Brydges FRS, at Chelsea College Chapel. She was his second wife. Brydges' social standing rose the following year when he was made Earl of Carnarvon and inherited a barony and baronetcy. When his father, the 8th Baron Chandos of Sudeley, died; in 1719 he became Duke of Chandos, and Cassandra the Duchess.
The National Gallery of Canada has a portrait of Cassandra and her husband by Sir Godfrey Kneller dated 1713 which also features Brydges' two sons by his first wife.
Cassandra died childless aged 65, and was buried at St Lawrence, Whitchurch near the ducal seat Cannons. Both the mother and sister of Jane Austen were named after Cassandra, to celebrate their link with a ducal family; Jane's mother was the granddaughter of the first Cassandra's sister-in-law, Mary Brydges.
Writings: Before she married she compiled a history of her father's family she entitled The Continuation of the History of the Willoughby Family which is preserved in the Manuscripts Department at Nottingham University Library. Some of her correspondence from before and after her marriage has been preserved at the Shakespeare Birthplace Trust Record Office, at the North London Collegiate School and the Huntington Library and Art Gallery, in San Marino, California. In addition, there are travel writings and genealogies.


New Orleans flooded

Apparently New Orleans was flooded for six months in the winter of 1734 1735. See here.

A good vintage?

Six bottles of wine recovered from a ship that sank in 1735 have raised a total of more than $12,700 at auction in Belgium. More here.


Patience Boston

From here
On this date (July 24) in 1735, a truculent indentured servant with a name like a primetime drama was hanged in York, Maine (at that time part of the Massachusetts colony), for killing her master’s grandson.
Patience Boston had cut a hard-partying, hard-drinking swath from her teen years to her execution at age 23, leading a succession of masters to dump her contract on whomever would take it. Early American Crime tracks her rowdy career, “mad and furious in my Drink, speaking dreadful Words, and wishing bad Wishes to my self and others” through a succession of fights, adulteries, dead infants (which she didn’t kill), a nonexistent infant (which she claimed to have killed).
All this draws upon a lengthy “Faithful Narrative of the Wicked Life and Remarkable Conversion of Patience Boston alias Samson” published three years after the woman’s death by her ministers Samuel and Joseph Moody (more on them in a bit). In it, “Patience” relates in a first-person voice* the real murder she finally did commit.
From some groundless Prejudice which I had taken against my Master, to whom I was sold by Mr. Bailey, I did last Fall bind my self by a wicked Oath that I would kill that Child, though I seem’d to love him, and he me; which is an Aggravation of my bloody Cruelty to him. Having solemnly sworn that I would be the Death of the Child, I was so far from repenting of it, that I thought I was obliged to fulfil it. And I often renewed my Resolution when I had been in Drink, and made my Master angry, that to be revenged on him, I might Murder his Grand-Child, of which I thought he was very fond, having bro’t him up from his Infancy. I would have killed my Master himself, if I could have done it; and had Thoughts of putting Poison into his Victuals, if I could have got any. But when the Time came for me to be left under the prevailing Power of Satan’s Temptations; I took the Opportunity of my Master and Mistress being from Home, and both his Sons also abroad; that the Child and I were left alone. The Evening before I had been contriving to burn the Barn, but was prevented: I had also once before drawn the Child into the Woods with me, designing to knock him on the Head, and got a great Stick for the same Purpose; but as I was going to lift it up, I fell a trembling, from a sense of God’s Eye upon me; so that I had not Power to strike. — But now, as I was going to say, when the Time was come to fill up the Measure of my Iniquity; I went to the Well and threw the Pole in, that I might have an Excuse to draw the Boy to the Well, which having done, I asked his Help to get up the Pole, that I might push him in, which having done, I took a longer Pole, and thrust him down under the Water, till he was drowned. When I saw he was dead, I lifted up my Hands with my Eyes towards Heaven, speaking after this Manner, Now am I guilty of Murder indeed; though formerly I accused my self falsly, yet now has God left me &c. And it seemed as if the Ground where I went was cursed for my sake, and I thought God would not suffer me to escape his righteous Vengeance. I went forthwith, and informed the Authority, and when the jury sat on the Body, I was ordered to touch it: This terrified me, lest the Blood should come forth, to be a Witness against me; and I then resolved in my Heart, that I would be a Witness against my self, and never deny my Guilt; so I tho’t God would not suffer the Child to bleed; then I laid my Hand on it’s Face, but no Blood appeared. Yet after this, I would fain have covered my Sin in Part, as if the Child had of himself fallen into the Well, and I was tempted to thrust him down under the Water. After the Jury had bro’t in wilful Murder, I was sent to Prison, but got Drunk by the Way, having little Sense of my dreadful Case; yet my Temptation in Part was to drink that I might forget my Sorrow.
Patience would need her namesake virtue, since she had the best part of a year to wait before the Supreme Court could gavel in a session to hear her case — a case where she would plead guilty and embrace the certain sentence.
In the meantime, we get to the real meat of the Moody pamphlet: our murderess’ conversion.
Allowing even for the interlocution of her reverend ministers, it presents a moving portrait of a genuine spiritual experience during the “Great Awakening” of religious revival. The narrative’s latter half tracks the doomed woman’s refinements of conscience, of fear, of religious comfort and joy in God — all as she grapples with her conduct and her fate.** “How are we condemned by the Covenant of Works,” Patience remarks, “and relieved by the Covenant of Grace.”

Now … as for this clan Moody that supplies our day’s post.
Samuel Moody, the father, had nudged young Joseph into the ministry business in York. Both men appear to have ministered to Patience Boston.
In 1738, the same time they were readying all this text about “rejoyc[ing], though with trembling” the younger Moody began a bizarre practice: he took to shrouding his face with a handkerchief.
In boring reality, this seems to have been occasioned by a breakdown caused by the sudden death of his wife in childbirth, a breakdown from which Moody recovered over the succeeding months.
In the much spicier legendary embellishment that developed, however, Moody was thought to have kept this veil for the balance of his life: he would present himself in this state, it is said, to his own congregation, turning his back on the multitude so that he could lift the veil to read a sermon, and likewise sitting face to corner when he should eat in public.
In this version, Moody is supposed to have confessed on his deathbed to having shrunk from men in his own spiritual torment over having accidentally killed a childhood friend while hunting, a killing that had been popularly ascribed to Indians and therefore unpunished save by the scourge of conscience. Nathaniel Hawthorne mined this irresistible New England folklore for his short story “The Minister’s Veil”.
“Tremble also at each other! Have men avoided me, and women shown no pity, and children screamed and fled, only for my black veil? What, but the mystery which it obscurely typifies, has made this piece of crape so awful? When the friend shows his inmost heart to his friend; the lover to his best beloved; when man does not vainly shrink from the eye of his Creator, loathsomely treasuring up the secret of his sin; then deem me a monster, for the symbol beneath which I have lived, and die! I look around me, and, lo! on every visage a Black Veil!”
-Hawthorne’s “Reverend Hooper”
* “It must be confessed,” the Moodies gamely preface their text, “that it could not be exactly taken in her own Way of expressing her self” so long after her death. But they gave it their best shot, and “here is nothing false or feigned.”
** The Faithful Narrative takes special note of the impression made on our subject by “the Case of the Prisoners at Boston, especially when the Day came for their Execution”. Although the text here refers to “three Malefactors”, there’s no 1734-1735 triple execution recorded in the Espy files; I believe the event intended here is the October 1734 double hanging of Matthew Cushing and John Ormsby.


AV Bible Printed 1735

Roy Collier of Toccoa, Ga. flips through his family King James Version Holy Bible, printed in 1735, in a safety deposit box room at a bank. See here.


Salem, New Jersey

The original section of the Old Courthouse at the corner of Market Street and East Broadway in downtown Salem City, NJ, was built in 1735. Later additions were made which enlarged the building.

Salem, Massachusetts

Driving down Derby Street in Salem Massachusetts, it’s easy to miss this house. There are no signs along its fence that draw attention to it, nor is it part of the Salem Maritime National Historic Site. It sits off Derby Street at 27 Herbert St. Yet, this house and its occupants really were the catalyst for the development of this area that would later become the national historic site.
The land and building on it dates back to the 17th century and attest to the continuing focus of Salem on the ocean and trade.
There were house lots here in the mid 1600s with frame dwellings for a succession of mariners into the early 1700s. In 1713, John Gardner sold the property to John Langsford whose heirs sold what was then considered the Langford Estate consisting of a dwelling, bake house, shop and barn to James Lindell for £400 in 1734. He in turn sold the property to Captain Richard Derby in Sept 1735 for the same amount.
Captain Richard Derby (1712 -1783) first captained a vessel in 1735 at the age of 24. That same year, he married Mary Hodges. This house is believed to have been built in 1735-1736. It appears that he had the other buildings removed. Captain Derby added land to his house lot by lot, buying land from the Pickman family a few years later.
Captain Derby continued to captain ships for the next 21 years. Having success on the seas, he allied with Timothy Orne during the 1740s, in an effort to increase his wealth through maritime investment. More here.


March 8, 1735
The earliest North Carolina earthquake on record is that of March 8, 1735, near Bath. This event was probably less than intensity V. See the entry from the N Carolina Archive below.

Much Sickness in North Carolina.
Boston, May 5. On Friday last Capt. Cowdry arriv'd here in l2 days from Bath County of North-Carolina, and informs us that it is exceeding sickly there, especially in the North-Country, where it was judg'd above half the Inhabitants were dead; and that whole Families were carry 'd off thereby, the Distemper begins with a violent pain in the Eye, and the Sick continue but about 20 or 30 Hours before they die; He further says, that on the 8th of March last, there was a considerable Shock of an Earthquake in No. Carolina.


Rulers in the HRE

Bavaria – Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor, Elector of Bavaria (1726–1745)
Brandenburg – Frederick William I of Prussia, (as FW II, Elector of B), (1713–40)
Bohemia/Mainz ??
Cologne – Clemens August of Bavaria, Archbishop-Elector of Cologne (1723–1761)
Hanover – Georg II, Elector of Hanover, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1727–1760)
Saxony – Frederick Augustus II Elector of ... (1733-1763) (+ King of Poland)
Trier – Franz Georg von Schönborn, Archbishop-Elector ... (1729–1756)
Anhalt-Bernburg – Viktor Friedrich, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg (1721–1765)
Anhalt-Dessau – Leopold I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau (1693–1747)
Anhalt-Köthen – August Ludwig, Prince of Anhalt-Köthen (1728–1755)
Arenberg – Leopold, Duke of Arenberg (1691–1754)
Auersperg – Heinrich Joseph Johann, Prince of Auersperg (1713–1783)
(Anhalt-Zerbst/Augsburg/Austria/Baden-Durlach/Bamberg – ?????)
Baden-Baden – Ludwig Georg Simpert, Margrave of Baden-Baden (1707–1761)
Berchtesgaden – Cajetan Anton von Notthaft, Prince-Provost ... (1732–1752)
Brandenburg-Ansbach – Karl Wilhelm Friedrich, Margrave ... (1723–1757)
B-Bayreuth – Friedrich IX, Margrave ... (1735–1763)
Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel – Karl I, Duke ... (1735–1780)
(Constance/Corvey/Eichstätt/Fulda/Hesse-Darmstadt – ?????)
Ellwangen – Franz Georg von Schönborn-Buchheim, Prince-Provost ... (1732–1756)
Freising – Johann Theodor of Bavaria, Prince-Bishop of Freising (1727–1763)
Fürstenberg – Joseph Wilhelm Ernst, Prince ... (1716–1762, Count 1704–1716)
Heitersheim – Philipp Wilhelm von Nesselrode, Prince/General Prior of Order of St John at ... (1728–54)
Hesse-Kassel – Frederick I, Landgrave ..., + King of Sweden (1730–1751)
Hildesheim – Clemens August of B, Prince-Bishop ... (1724–61, + A-E of C)
Hohenzollern-Hechingen – Friedrich Ludwig, Prince ... (1735–1750)
(Holstein-Glückstadt/Holstein-Gottorp – ??)
Kempten – Anselm Reichlin von Meldegg, Prince-Abbot of Kempten (1728–1747)
Lübeck – Adolf Friedrich, Prince-Bishop of Lübeck (1727–1750)
Mecklenburg-Schwerin – Karl Leopold, Duke ... (1713–1747)
Mecklenburg-Strelitz – Adolf Friedrich III, Duke ... (1708–1752)
Mergentheim – Clemens August of B, Prince & Grand Master Teutonic Order (1732–61)
Münster – Clemens August of B, Prince-Bishop ... (1723–61, + A-E of Cologne)
Nassau-Orange – Wilhelm IV, Prince of Nassau-Orange (1711–1751)
Osnabrück – Clemens August of B, Prince-Bishop ... (1728–61, + A-E of Cologne)
Paderborn – Clemens August of B, Prince-Bishop ... (1719–61)
Palatinate-Birkenfeld-Zweibrücken – Christian IV, Duke of Zweibrücken (1735–75)
P-Sulzbach – Karl Theodor, Count Palatine and Duke ... (1733–1799)
Passau – Joseph Dominicus Franz Kilian von Lamberg, Prince-Bishop ... (1723–61)
Regensburg – Johann Theodor Cardinal of Bavaria, Bishop ... (1719–1763)
(Oldenburg/Palatinate/Salm-Kyrburg/Salm-Salm/Saxe-Hildburghausen – ?????)
Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld – Franz Josias, Duke ... (1735–1764)
Saxe-Gotha – Friedrich III, Duke of Saxe-Gotha (1732–1772)
Saxe-Meiningen – Anton Ulrich, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen (1706–1763)
Saxe-Weimar – Ernst August I, Duke of Saxe-Weimar (1728–1748)
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt – Johann Friedrich, Prince ... (1744–1767)
(Schwarzburg-Sondershausen/Speyer/Württemberg/Würzburg – ????)
Strassburg – Guillaume Gaston I Cardinal de Rohan-Soubise, Prince-Bishop ... (1704-49)
Worms – Franz Georg von Schönborn, Prince-Bishop ... (1732–56, + A-E of Trier)
Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym – Viktor I, Prince ... (1727–1772)
Bentheim – Friedrich Karl Philipp, Count of Bentheim (1731–1753)
Bentheim-Steinfurt – Karl Paul Ernst, Count of Bentheim-Steinfurt (1733–1780)
Essen – Francisca Christina von Pfalz-Sulzbach, Princess-Abbess ... (1726–1776)
Gandersheim – Elisabeth Christine of Saxe-Meiningen Princess-Abbess ... (1713–66)
Gutenzell – Bernardina von Donnerberg, Princess-Abbess of Gutenzell (1718–1747)
Herford – Johanna Charlotte of Anhalt-Dessau, Princess-Abbess ... (1729–1750)
Hohenlohe-Bartenstein – Karl Philipp Franz, Prince ... (1744–63, Count 1729–44)
Hohenlohe-Langenburg – Ludwig, Count ... (1715–1764, Prince 1764–1765)
Hohenlohe-Öhringen – Johann Friedrich II, Count ... (1702–64, Prince 1764–65)
Hohenlohe-Weikersheim – Carl Ludwig, Count ... (1702–1756)
Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst – Philipp Ernst I, Prince ... (1744–53, Count 1697f)
(Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen/Hesse-Homburg/Hoogstraten – ???)
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen – Joseph Friedrich, Prince ... (1715–1769)
Isenburg – Ernst Kasimir, Count of Isenburg (1708–1749)
Isenburg-Birstein – Wolfgang Ernst I, Prince ... 1711–1744. (1744–1754)
Isenburg-Meerholz – Karl Friedrich, Count of Isenburg-Meerholz (1724–1774)
Isenburg-Wächtersbach – Ferdinand Maximilian II, Count ... (1703–1755)
Kaisersheim – Cölestin I Meermols, Prince-Abbot ...
Käppel – Sophie Charlotte Kessel von Bottlenberg, Princess-Abbess ... (1718–1748)
Leiningen-Dachsburg-Falkenburg-Billigheim – Johann Franz, Count ... (1699–1750)
Leiningen-D-F-Heidesheim – Christian Karl Reinhard, Count ... (1698–1766)
Leiningen-Dachsburg-Hartenburg – Friedrich Magnus, Count ... (1722–1756)
Leiningen-Emichsburg – Carl Ludwig, Count ... (1722–1747)
Lippe-Alverdissen – Friedrich Ernst, Count of Lippe-Alverdissen (1723–1749)
Lippe-Detmold – Simon August, Count of Lippe-Detmold (1734–1749)
(Lippe-Biesterfeld/Lippe-Weissenfeld/Lindau/Nassau-Weilburg/Palatinate-Birkenfeld-Gelnhausen – ?????)
Nassau-Saarbrücken – Wilhelm Heinrich, Count ... (1735–1768)
Nassau-Usingen – Karl, Prince of Nassau-Usingen (1718–1775)
Quedlinburg – Maria Elisabeth von Holstein-Gottorp, Princess-Abbess ... (1710–55)
Reuss-Ebersdorf – Heinrich XXIX, Count of Reuss-Ebersdorf (1711–1747)
Reuss-Gera – Heinrich XXV, Count of Reuss-Gera (1735–1748)
Reuss-Obergreiz – Heinrich XI, Count of Reuss-Obergreiz (1723–1768)
Reuss-Lobenstein/Reuss-Schleiz –
Reuss-Untergreiz – Heinrich III, Count of Reuss-Untergreiz (1733–1768)
(Salm-Dhaun/Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg/Stolberg-Rossla/Stolberg-Stolberg/Weingarten/Wied – ??????)
Salm-Dyck – August Eugen Bernhard, Count (Altgraf) of Salm-Dyck (1727–1767)
Salm-Grumbach – Karl Walrad Wilhelm, Count of Salm-Grumbach (1727–1763)
Salm-Leuze – Philipp Joseph, Prince of Salm-Leuze (1716–1779)
Salm-Reifferscheid – Karl Anton Joseph, Count (Altgraf) ... (1734–1755)
Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein – Karl Friedrich Wilhelm, Count ... (1735–1756)
Schaumburg-Lippe, Albrecht Wolfgang, Count ... (1728–1748)
Stolberg-Wernigerode – Christian Ernst, Count ... (1710–1771)
Waldeck-Pyrmont – Karl August Friedrich, Prince of W, Count of P (1728–1763)
Westerburg-Leiningen-Alt-Leiningen – Georg Hermann, Count ... (1720–1751)
Westerburg-L-Neu-Leiningen Bavaria Line – Georg Ernst Ludwig, Count ... (BL) (1726–65)
Westerburg-L-Alt-Leiningen Nassau Line – Georg Karl I August Ludwig, Count ... (NL) (1726–87)