This blog attempts to collate various materials in connection with the year 1735.

20081211

Marriage of Grimshaw

The great Haworth Methodist preacher William Grimshaw was an unconverted clergyman in 1735. He had already come under the conviction that would lead eventually to his conversion. His realisation of his lack of spirituality was a first step on the road to change. At this time he was trying to reform his life and began to urge his congregation to lead moral lives. He started praying four times a day, a practice he would continue after his conversion. But as he later admitted, all of this was but an earnest “working out a righteousness of his own,” in which he tried to balance the sins of his life with good deeds.
He went on like this for seven years (1734-1741). Sometimes, though, the futility of trying to trying to find salvation through the pathway of good works would overwhelm him and he would cry out in the middle of a service: “My friends, we are in a damnable state, and I scarcely know how we are to get out of it.” He was beginning to realise, in the words of one of his biogrpahers Frank Baker, that “he could not put himself right with God by a multitude of devotional exercises, however arduous.”
In 1735 he married a widow named Sarah Sutcliffe (1710-1739). Apparently she came riding by one day and made the oprioposal. He loved dearly but, after she had borne him two children, she died at the very young age of 29. Grimshaw was shattered.

20081205

Sopron University


The present University of West Hungary is based in the city of Sopron. It began in its present form at the beginning of 2000. It merges a number of institutions including Sopron University. The legal predecessor of Sopron University was the University of Forestry and Wood Sciences. This institution began as a school, training mining officials and was founded in Selmecbánya by King Charles III (Emperor Charles IV) in 1735.

20081107

Boyne Obelisk


In 1735 (possibly 1736) a 130 feet obelisk was raised 3 miles west of Drogheda, marking the site of the 1690 Battle of Boyne. It is currently in a state of disrepair but some Orangemen are keen to put that right I understand. The painting is from 1757 and is by Thomas Mitchell (Who was born in 1735!). The drawing is by one Richard Lovett.
The inscription reads
'Sacred to the glorious memory of King William the Third, who, on the 1st of July, 1690, passed the river near this place to attack James the Second at the head of a Popish army, advantageously posted on the south side of it, and did, on that day, by a single battle, secure to us and to our posterity, our liberty, laws, and religion. In consequence of this action, James the Second left this kingdom and fled to France.'

20081023

Devos China Plates


This fine pair of Chinese Armorial Porcelain Soup Plates with the arms of the deVos family of Holland are currently up for sale. They are dated around 1735.

20081010

Cebu


The Basilica Minore del Sto Niño is the centre of the oldest Romanist devotion in the Philippines. It houses the image of the Sto Niño de Cebu, a representation of the infant Jesus, brought by Ferdinand Magellan in 1521.
Three churches preceded the present one. The first, by Fr Diego de Herrera, made of nipa and wood burnt down, 1566. The next, also of light materials, by Fr Pedro Torres burnt, 1628. The third, of bricks and stones, was started by Fr Juan de Medina. It fell down, 1629.
On February 29, 1735, Fr Juan de Albarran started the construction of what would be the present church using hewn stone. The church was finished, 1739.
The facade blends Muslim, Romanesque and Neo-Classical features. It follows the classical pattern and is divided into two levels. Shallow pilasters divide each story into three segments decorated with stone bas-reliefs representing Augustinian saints. The bell tower serves as counterbalance to the opposite end. A triangular pediment crowns the solid, but not massive, facade. Attention is focused on the centre section. The trefoil arched main entrance is balanced by the side rectangular statued niches. The vertical composition is echoed by the small design on the second level above the cornice, the trefoil arch, the pediment and the side scroll-like ornament, a facade within a facade. A double-edged triangular pediment crowns the facade.

20081009

10 Downing Street


[From Wikipedia]

The home of the British Prime minister, Number 10 Downing Street, was originally three houses. In 1732 King George II offered them to Sir Robert Walpole in gratitude for services to the nation. Walpole accepted on condition they would be a gift to the office of First Lord of the Treasury rather than to him personally. Walpole commissioned leaing architect William Kent to join them together. Kent's plan was a masterpiece and this larger house is known today as 10 Downing Street.
Kent joined the larger houses by building a two-story structure on part of the space between them, consisting of a long room on the ground floor and several rooms above. The remaining space was converted into an inner courtyard. He then connected the Downing Street houses with a corridor, now called the Treasury Passage.
Rebuilding took 3 years. On September 23, 1735, the London Daily Post announced that Walpole had moved into Number 10: “Yesterday, the Right Hon Sir Robert Walpole, with his Lady and Family moved from their House in St James’s Square, to his new House adjoining to the Treasury in St James’s Park.”
The Walpole family did not enter through the door now so famous (not installed until 40 years later). However, like Number 10's famous door, Kent's was also modest, belying the spacious elegance beyond. Their new, albeit temporary, home had 60 rooms, with hardwood and marble floors, crown moulding, elegant pillars and marble mantelpieces; those on the west side with beautiful views of St James's Park. One of the largest rooms was a study for Walpole, 40 feet by 20 with enormous windows overlooking St James's Park. The room was and still is magnificent; its impressive size is easily seen in many paintings and photographs (virtual tour here). "My Lord's Study" (as Kent labelled it in his drawings) would later be famous as the Cabinet room where Prime Ministers meet with their subordinate ministers. A portrait of Walpole hangs over the fireplace behind the PM’s chair; the only picture in the room.
The total final cost of Kent's conversion is unknown. The original estimate was £8k but probably exceeded £20k, then a very large sum. The arrangement was not an immediate success. Despite its impressive size and convenient location, few early PMs lived there. Costly to maintain, neglected and run-down, it came close to being razed several times but survived and became linked with many of the great statesmen and events in British history. Gradually, the people came to appreciate its historic value.

20081007

Georgia Map


Future Location of Chatham County, 1735

The area enclosed in red represents the future boundaries of Chatham County. The above map shows what is labeled the "County of Savannah" and is commonly attributed to having been prepared in 1740 in conjunction with the Trustees creating the "County of Savannah" in 1741. However, stronger evidence suggests that the map was based on a sketch James Oglethorpe carried to England in 1734 and was subsequently published in a 1735 report on Georgia's Salzburger immigrants.

Why this map is entitled the "County of Savannah" is not known, though it may have been based on the assumption that the English system of counties would be applied in Georgia. The Trustees had debated a new plan for administering the colony of Georgia for some time, and in April 1741 they divided Georgia into two counties named Savannah and Frederica. The County of Savannah included settlements on both banks of the Ogeechee River, plus all lands northward to the Savannah River.

Source: T.F. Lotter, "A Map of the County of Savannah," 1735

20081003

Chardin 1735


Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin (1699-1779) was an 18th-century French painter. He is considered a master of still life. His most famous work of 1735 is Lady taking tea. It was apparently painted in February 1735. His wife Marguerite Saintard died two months later. From the same time are The Young Sketcher, The School Mistress, The Embroiderer, The House of Cards, Rabbit with Copper Cauldron and Quince, Soap Bubbles and a portrait of Charles Godefroy (1706-1771). We have mentioned before his Boy with a top also of 1735.

20080923

Wesley to his mother

To his Mother
OXON, January 13, 1735
DEAR MOTHER, -- Give my leave to say once more that our folks do, and will I supose to the end of the chapter, mistake the question.
Supposing him changed? Say they. Right: but that supposition has not proof yet – whether it may have: when it has, then we may come to our other point, whether all this be not providence, i.e. blessing. And whether we are empowered so to judge, condemn, and execute an imprudent Christian, as God forbid I should ever use a Turk or Deist.
I have had a great deal of a conversation lately on the subject of Christian liberty, and should be glad of your thoughts as to the several notions of it which good men entertain. I perceive different persons take it in at least six different senses: (1) For liberty from willful sin, in opposition to the bondage of natural corruption. (2) For liberty as to rites and points of discipline. So Mr. Whiston says, though the stations were constituted by the Apostles, yet the liberty of the Christian law dispenses with them on extraordinary occasions. [William Whiston (1667-1752) succeeded Newton as Lucasian Pro­fessor in 1703. The reference is to his book, The Primitive Eucharist Revived; or, an account of the doctrine and practice of the two first centuries. The ' stations' were the fasts: see letter of June 13, 1753, n.] (3) For liberty from denying ourselves in little things; for trifles, 'tis commonly thought, we may indulge in safety, because Christ hath made us free. This notion, I a little doubt, is not sound. (4) For liberty from fear, or a filial freedom in our intercourse with God. A Christian, says Dr. Knight, [James Knight, Vicar of St. Sepulchre's, London. See letter of May 8, 1739.] is free from fear on account of his past sins; for he believes in Christ, and hope frees him from fear of losing his present labor or of being a castaway hereafter. (5) Christian liberty is taken by some for a freedom from restraint as to sleep or food. So they would say, your drinking but one glass of wine, or my rising at a fixed hour, was contrary to Christian liberty. Lastly, it is taken for freedom from rules. If by this be meant making our rules yield to extraordinary occasions, well: if the having no prudential rules, this liberty is as yet too high for me; I cannot attain unto it.
We join in begging yours and my father's blessing, and wishing you an Happy Year. -- I am, dear mother,
Your dutiful and affectionate Son.
To Mrs. Wesley, At Epworth. To be left at the Post-house in Gainsborough. By London.

20080919

Betty Hemings


Elizabeth "Betty" Hemings was born around 1735, somewhere west of Monticello, Albemarle County, Virginia, now USA. She was an American slave owned by Thomas Jefferson (see pic), said to have been the concubine of Jefferson's father-in-law John Wayles, from whom Jefferson inherited her and her family. Over 75 of her children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren were enslaved at Jefferson's estate in Monticello.
According to the oral history of her descendants, Betty was the daughter of a slave-ship captain named Hemings and a woman born in Africa. Her place of birth is uncertain, but by the 1740s she was the property of Frances Eppes IV, of the Bermuda Hundred plantation, whose daughter Martha Eppes was to become John Wayles first wife.
Betty's grandson, Madison Hemings, related the story that Betty was already the property of "John Wales" at her birth, and her father Captain Hemings attempted to purchase her from Wayles, but Wayles refused because he was curious about how a mulatto child would develop. Captain Hemings then plotted to kidnap his daughter, which Wayles got word of, and took measures against. This account appears to contradict the documentary evidence pertaining to Betty's birth and early life, though it is possible that Wayles could have sold Betty to Frances Eppes, and later regained ownership of her via the dowry of Eppes's daughter, or that Madison's chronology is incorrect and the incident, if it occurred, happened later.
After the marriage of John Wayles and Martha Eppes 1746, Elizabeth became the property of Wayles, and was moved to one of his plantations, where she became a household servant. In the 1750s she gave birth to the first four of her 12 children, whose paternity is unknown.
John Wayles had three wives, all of whom pre-deceased him. In 1761, after the death of his third wife, Wayles took Betty Hemings as his concubine. According to her descendants, she had six children with Wayles including Sally Hemings (thought to have had a child with Jefferson). Wayles died 1773, and all 11 members of the Hemings family became the property of Thomas Jefferson.
Jefferson gave the Hemingses privileged positions as artisans and household servants. No member of the Hemings family ever worked the field. While resident at Monticello, Betty gave birth to another son, John, whose father was an Irish workman.
Betty had her own home at Monticello, where she spent roughly the last decade of her life, 1795-1807. Hemings sold cabbages, strawberries and chickens to Jefferson while she lived there. Her former cabin is now an archaeological site.

Relationship with John Wayles
Historians have tended to accept the account that Betty Hemings and John Wayles had children together, although, as in the case of many relationships between slave-owners and slaves, documentary evidence is slight. Betty was mentioned in John Wayles will, which some take as an indication of a relationship. Some of Betty's children, according to contemporary accounts, were nearly white. Other support is found in gossip from the first decade of the 19th century, which manifested itself in a few private letters which eventually became public. The accounts of former slaves Isaac Jefferson and Madison Hemings are the most well-known sources for the relationship.

(From Wikipedia)

20080913

World's oldest railway bridge


In the memoir of Rev F C Schwartz, apparently there is a record of his being sent by the East India Company as an emissary to negotiate with Haidar Ali in 1779. There mention is made of the Kabini bridge built by Dalvoy Devaraj in 1735 over the river Kabini. Surprisingly, the bridge is intact even now. The structure, built with stones, bricks and sand is 10-12 metres in width and has a narrow gauge rail track (no longer used) and a tarred road. It has been established as the oldest railway bridge in the world. There is currently talk of redeveloping the historic site. The bridge is near Nanganjud in Mysore, Karnataka, India.

20080822

Cricket


(From Wikipedia)
In the 1735 English cricket season, the main county teams in action were Kent, Surrey and Sussex while London and Croydon remained the predominant town clubs.
The county champions were Kent.
Nine match reports are found in Wikipedia here.
The General Evening Post Thu Aug 7 announced a single wicket match the following Monday on Kennington Common involving seven players of the London Club. The game would be three against four with Mr Wakeland, Mr Dunn and Mr Pool against Mr Marshall, Mr Ellis and two others.
Thu Aug 28 death of Edward (aka Edwin0 Stead reported in the Grub Street Journal dated Thu Sep 4. Mr Stead was a noted patron of the game from the mid-1720s and may have been a good player too. He was a Maidstone man who undoubtedly did much to promote the game in Kent. A compulsive gambler, it seems he died in reduced circumstances. One account stated that he died "near Charing Cross" and another that he died "in Scotland Yard".

20080424

Franklin and morality


On April 10, 1735, Benjamin Franklin published his Dialogue between two Presbyterians after a Presbyterian synod in Philadelphia had brought charges against a young preacher named Samuel Hemphill. See here. it is an argument for morality over faith.

20080416

Arzamas Loskutov

In 1735 (When else?) the Cossack adventurer Arzamas Loskutov, apparently due to boredom and a lack of alcohol, recorded the last Arin words from the last Arin speaker. Arin was a Siberian language of the Yeniseian family of languages. The Yeniseian group contains at least four languages - Ket, Kott, Arin (Arrin) and Assan. Only Ket is a living language, spoken by about a thousand speakers in Central Siberia.

20080327

Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù

Bartolomeo Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù (1698-1744) is the only luthier to rival Stradivarius (1644-1737) with regard to the respect and reverence accorded his instruments. He has been called the finest violin maker in the Amati line.
He is known as del Gesù because his labels incorporated the nomin sacra, IHS (iota-eta-sigma) and a Roman cross. His instruments diverged significantly from family tradition, becoming uniquely his own, and are considered second in quality only to those of Stradivari. Some argue that they are superior.
The most illustrious member of the Guarneri family of violin makers, he was the son of Giuseppe Giovanni Battista Guarneri, the grandson of Andrea Guarneri, both noted violin makers as well. Andrea learned his trade as an apprentice of Nicolo Amati, as was Stradavari.
In 1735 Giuseppe produced somewhere around 17 violins still extant. These include the Lafont, Ladenburg, Sennhauser, King, D'Egville, Plowden, Charden and David.

Antonio Stradivari

Antonio Stradivari (1644-1737) was an Italian luthier, a crafter of stringed instruments such as violins, cellos, guitars and harps. Stradivari (often Latinised to Stradivarius) is generally considered the most significant artisan in this field. The colloquial, "Strad", is often used to refer to his instruments. Although by 1735 he was in his nineties he did make at least three violins. These include the Lamoureux (formerly the Zimbalist) and the Elman (formerly the Hartmann or Samazeuilh). Efrem Zimbalist sold the Lamoureux to David Sarser in 1948. It was subsequently stolen in the seventies.

20080207

Works of Jonathan Swift

In 1735 an Irish publisher, George Faulkner, printed a complete set of Swift's works to date, Volume III of which was the famous Gulliver's Travels (originally produced in 1726). As revealed in Faulkner's "Advertisement to the Reader", Faulkner had access to an annotated copy of Benjamin Motte's work by "a friend of the author" (generally believed to be Swift's friend Charles Ford) which reproduced most of the manuscript free of Motte's amendments, the original manuscript having been destroyed. It is also believed that Swift at least reviewed proofs of Faulkner's edition before printing but this cannot be proven. Generally, this is regarded as the Editio Princeps of Gulliver's Travels with one small exception, discussed below. This edition had an added piece by Swift, A letter from Capt. Gulliver to his Cousin Sympson which complained of Motte's alterations to the original text, saying he had so much altered it that "I do hardly know mine own work" and repudiating all of Motte's changes as well as all the keys, libels, parodies, second parts and continuations that had appeared in the intervening years. This letter now forms part of many standard texts.
Gulliver's Travels, officially Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World, in Four Parts. By Lemuel Gulliver, First a Surgeon, and then a Captain of several Ships is a novel that is both a satire on human nature and a parody of the "travellers' tales" literary sub-genre. It is Swift's best known work, and a classic of English literature.
The book became tremendously popular as soon as it was published (John Gay said in a 1726 letter to Swift that "it is universally read, from the cabinet council to the nursery"), and it is likely that it has never been out of print since then.
Swift had travelled to London to have his work published; the manuscript was secretly delivered to the publisher Motte, who used five printing houses to speed production and avoid piracy. Motte, recognising a bestseller but fearing prosecution, simply cut or altered the worst offending passages (such as the descriptions of the court contests in Lilliput or the rebellion of Lindalino), added some material in defense of Queen Anne to book II, and published it. The first edition was released in two volumes on October 26, 1726, priced 8s. 6d.

Blandford Church


Old Blandford Church
BUILT IN 1735
A Confederate Memorial Since 1901
PETERSBURG, VIRGINIA
Located in Blandford Cemetery
On US Routes 301 - 460

Hanover Courthouse

The small village of Hanover, Virginia, sits as the County Seat of growing Hanover County. Surrounded by centuries of history, this town of nearly 500 people along US Route 301 has lodged many famous dignitaries at an over two centuries old tavern and has been the birthplace of many notable names in American History. The historic courthouse that sits off of the main highway was built in 1735.

20080204

Dick Turpin


Dick Turpin (1706-1739) has been romanticised amost out of existence since his death but there are solid facts concerning him. Wikipedia gives this ionformation about his early career.

He was a butcher by trade in Essex but rather than rely on legitimate suppliers for his stock-in-trade, he turned to stealing the sheep, lamb and cattle, which was considered so serious a criminal offence that it was punishable by death. Scholars and historians are divided as to what caused Turpin to engage in crime in the first place. Some claim it was out of financial necessity; whilst others believe, through studying Turpin's later actions, that his notorious deeds were done through a sense of thrill-seeking. Others believe he was simply too greedy to pay for legitimate stock, and/or too lazy to earn an honest living, and thus a simple brigand.

The life of a fugitive
Turpin was caught stealing two oxen, and was forced to flee the area and leave his wife and business behind. With customs officers in hot pursuit, he had the common sense not to stay in a tavern or inn, where he could have been found easily. Ratehr he fled into the depths of the Essex countryside and lived rough and wild. For a time he lived in caves along the coast of East Anglia, and supported himself by robbing the smugglers who operated there — perhaps the same characters he had met earlier in life.
Eventually he moved on again, this time hiding in Epping Forest (which was larger and far more verdant than it is today, and often used by royalty to hunt deer).
In with the Gregory Gang
Turpin fell in with the Gregory Gang (also known as the Essex gang). They were a group of around 20 bandits, who operated from secret hideouts in Epping Forest.
They were notorious around Essex and London. They bravely, or perhaps foolishly, stole and killed royal game which had been set aside by the gamekeepers for the King's own hunts. If caught doing this, they would surely face the gallows, or maybe even face hanging, drawing adn quartering. This is because it was considered high treason to poach the King's own deer.
The three ringleaders of the Gregory Gang were brothers after whom the gang was named: Samuel, Jasper and Jeremy. Other gangmembers included Thomas Hadfield, Thomas Barnfield, Thomas Rowden, Mary Brazier, John Fielder, Herbert Haines, John Jones, James Parkinson, Joseph Rose, Ned Rust, William Saunders, Humphry Walker and John Wheeler. There may have been other members.
The gang was not limited to mere poaching. They attempted an armed robbery at a gentleman's house at Woodford, Essex, but the inhabitants of the village drove the rogues off without their being able to accomplish anything. The gang appeared unfazed by this. In March 1735, Turpin, along with the Gregory brothers attacked theEarl of Suffolk's servant in Epping Forest and took from him his horse valued at £80 (this in a time where horses were a more valued commodity than gold). A few weeks later, Sir Caesar Child was attacked in the Forest by the gang who fired at the coachman without bidding him to stand and shot off the tip of his nose. They robbed him of £25. Allegedly, all these acts were orchestrated by Turpin, although this is unconfirmed. It is certain that Turpin learned a lot from the gang.
As Turpin joined them, the Gregory Gang were entering a particularly violent phase of their criminal career. They had begun to specialise in forced entry into (usually isolated) houses around theHome Counties, and terrorising the occupants to make them reveal the whereabouts of hidden valuables. By 1735, the London Evening Post regularly reported the exploits of Turpin and 'The Essex Gang' and the King had offered a reward of £50 for their capture.
The Loughton incident
On February 8, 1735 Read's Weekly Journal reported one such attack: 'On Saturday night last, about seven o'clock, five rogues entered the house of Widow Shelley at Loughton in Essex, having pistols, and threatened to murder the old lady, if she would not tell them where her money lay, which she obstinately refusing for some time, they threatened to lay her across the fire, if she did not instantly tell them, which she would not do. But her son being in the room, and threatened to be murdered, cried out, he would tell them, if they would not murder his mother, and did, whereupon they went upstairs, and took near £100, a silver tankard, and other plate, and all manner of household goods. They afterwards went into the cellar and drank several bottles of ale and wine, and broiled some meat, ate the relicts of a filet of veal. While they were doing this, two of their gang went to Mr Turkles, a farmer, who rents one end of the widow's house, and robbed him of above £20, and then they all went off, taking two of the farmer's horses, to carry off their luggage, the horses were found on Sunday the following morning in Old Street, and stayed about three hours in the house.'
This particular raid took place on February 1, 1735, and widow Shelly's house was inTraps Hill, Loughton. It was reported the gang had made away with £700, a huge amount of money in those days. It is the best surviving account of the Gregory Gang's activities. The Loughton Incident was also their last ever criminal activity as a gang.
Although the newspaper report does not specifically mention Turpin, it seems highly likely that he was a member of the gang on this occasion. Turpin often carried out his robberies in the company of a man named Thomas Rowden (formerly a metal-worker, now outlawed) and a report at the time states that Rowden was involved in the robbery at Loughton. A more recent author has written that the crime was conceived, planned and scouted by Turpin but no evidence is given for this.
Turpin's joining the gang would prove a bad omen for them. Shortly after the Loughton incident, constables worked hard to track them down, and did so not long after. The Gregory Gang were tracked down and surprised by police officers whilst the criminals were living up the good life with their spoils in a tavern in Westminster. Turpin managed to escape by jumping out of a window, but the three ringleaders of the gang were caught and hanged at the gallows as common thieves.
At this time John Wheeler, a gang member turned police informer, described Turpin as a "tall, fresh-coloured man, very much marked with the pox", who wore a light wig.
Thomas Hadfield, one of Turpin's closest friends within the gang, escaped with Turpin through the tavern window, but refused to continue with criminal activity. The other gang members rapidly dispersed also, and didn't bother to regroup in the forest. They had either had enough, or were too scared of the hangman. This was the end of the Gregory Gang.
The birth of Dick Turpin the highwayman
Upon the breakup of the Gregory Gang, and the capture and execution of others, the only gang members left still indulging in criminal behaviour were Turpin himself and the raucous Thomas Rowden. The duo changed their tactics from robbing isolated farmhouses to robbing stagecoaches passing through Epping Forest, which they found to be considerably easier for two men instead of a gang. At last, Turpin had become what he was destined to become — a highwayman.
Later Turpin went into partnership with Tom King, "the Gentleman Highwayman", who at that time was just as famous as Turpin himself, although a less well known highwayman than Turpin today. "Captain King", as he was sometimes called, was said to have had better manners, and was said to be more dashing than Turpin, and being flattering to his victims was a deliberate tactic of his. King was the kind of swashbuckling, devil-may-care character into which legend would later transform Turpin.
Turpin and King met on the road one night when the former attempted to rob the latter. King responded with the words: "What is this; dog eat dog?"
The two joined forces and it proved to be a highly successful partnership (unlike Turpin's previous short-lived partnership with Thomas Rowden). The pair established a hide-out at the remains of anIron Age fort, now known as Loughton Camp.
From one particular cave in Epping Forest, they could watch a road without being seen, and robbed virtually anyone who passed along it. Even local peddlers started to carry weapons for protection. There was soon a oprice on Turpin's head.
Turpin becomes a murderer
Numerous acts of murder are attributed to Dick Turpin, although it is not clear which ones were actually committed by him and which weren't, due to centuries of embellishment. There is of course no doubt he did commit murder, but the questions are; how many times did he commit murder; who were his victims; and where did Turpin's murders take place? Historians have debated these questions for centuries.
Turpin's first kill was probably a man named Thomas Morris whom he killed on May 4, 1735. Morris was a servant of Henry Thomson, one of the keepers of Epping Forest, and during a routine walkabout of the forest Morris accidentally came across Turpin atFarimead Bottom, near Loughton. Morris tried to apprehend him (there was a big reward for Turpin's capture at the time) but was immediately shot by Turpin.
Once again Turpin took to his heels, only this time with a far greater crime on his hands than theft. Despite the high risk of capture, Turpin visited his estranged wife who was now living in Hertford, possibly suspecting (accurately, as it turned out) that he would never see her again. Turpin was indeed nearly caught and only very narrowly avoided capture at this point.

Book on criminals



This title first appeared in 1735.


LIVES OF THE MOST REMARKABLE CRIMINALS

Who have been Condemned and Executed for Murder, the Highway, Housebreaking, Street Robberies, Coining or other offences

Collected from Original Papers and Authentic Memoirs, and Published in 1735

EDITED BY ARTHUR L. HAYWARD


This book can be seen here or here.

20080201

St Benedict and a solar eclipse


Is this painting the earliest realistic depiction of a total eclipse of the Sun? Some historians believe so. The above painting was completed in 1735 by Cosmas Damian Asam, 1686-1739 (brother of Egid Quirin Asam), a famous early 18th Century painter and architect in Germany. The painting shows the solar corona and the diamond ring effect visible when sunlight flows only between mountains on the Moon. The person depicted viewing it all is St Benedict. Roberta J M Olson and Jay Pasachoff have hypothesised that Asam himself may have seen first hand one or all of the total solar eclipses of May 1706, 1724 and 1733. Asam's painting currently hangs in Weltenburg Abbey in Bavaria, Germany. It came to my attention as picture of the day on an astronomy site (see here). For more on Asam see here.

20080105

Spanish Riding School Vienna


The famous Spanish Riding School in Vienna, Austria, is located in a number of buildings on the Michaelerplatz and the Josefplatz near the Hofburg in central Vienna. Performances take place in the Winter Riding School, an elegant riding hall that was completed in 1735 and was commissioned by the Emperor Charles VI. Prior to that, the School operated from an arena at the Imperial Palace. The Winter Riding School is completely white, with a portrait of Emperor Charles VI above the royal box and opposite the entrance (to which the riders always salute before they ride), and measures 55 by 18 meters and is 17 meters in height.

20080103

Canaletto 03


Giovanni Antonio Canal lived 1697-1768 in Venice. Other Canaletto works around 1735 include
Campo Santa Maria Formosa (in private hands)
Piazza San Marco, Vista hacia San Geminiano (Rome)
El puente Rialto desde el Sur (Rome)
Regata en el Gran Canal, después de (London) [See pic]

Also
Piazza San Marco: Vista sureste (Washington)
Entrada al Gran Canal: Desde el Oeste al Molo (Washington)
El Canal del Brenta en Padua (Washington)

Canaletto 02

Again around 1735, this is Feast of St Roch.

Canaletto

This Canaletto of the Grand Canal can be seen in Cologne and was painted c 1735.

Francis Moore

A Voyage to Georgia Begun in the Year 1735 by Francis Moore was published in 1744. The full title is "A Voyage to Georgia Begun in the Year 1735. Containing An Account of the Settling the Town of Frederica, in the Southern part of the Province and a description of the Soil, Air, Birds, Beasts, Trees, Rivers, Islands, &c. With The Rules and Orders made by the Honorable the Trustees for that Settlement, including the Allowance of Provisons, Clothing and other Necessaries to the Families and Servants which went thiter. Also A Description of the Town and County of Savannah, in the Northern Part of the Province; the manner of dividing and granting the Lands and the Improvements there: With an Account of the Air, Soil, Rivers and Islands in that Part. By Francis Moore, Author of Travels into the Inland Parts of Africa. London, 1744". It has been reprinted in modern times and is of antiquarian interest.
It contains the most detailed account of the establishment of Frederica, at that time the southernmost English fort in America. The majority of the settlers were England's "worthy poor", that had been carefully selected by the Trustees, but there were also persecuted German protestants. Moore served at Frederica as Keeper of the King's Stores and as Oglethorpe's Secretary. But conflicts arose between them and Moore returned to England in 1743.

Schenk Ottens map


This map by Schenk Ottens was first published in 1700. This is a reissue of 1735.