This blog attempts to collate various materials in connection with the year 1735.

20080207

Works of Jonathan Swift

In 1735 an Irish publisher, George Faulkner, printed a complete set of Swift's works to date, Volume III of which was the famous Gulliver's Travels (originally produced in 1726). As revealed in Faulkner's "Advertisement to the Reader", Faulkner had access to an annotated copy of Benjamin Motte's work by "a friend of the author" (generally believed to be Swift's friend Charles Ford) which reproduced most of the manuscript free of Motte's amendments, the original manuscript having been destroyed. It is also believed that Swift at least reviewed proofs of Faulkner's edition before printing but this cannot be proven. Generally, this is regarded as the Editio Princeps of Gulliver's Travels with one small exception, discussed below. This edition had an added piece by Swift, A letter from Capt. Gulliver to his Cousin Sympson which complained of Motte's alterations to the original text, saying he had so much altered it that "I do hardly know mine own work" and repudiating all of Motte's changes as well as all the keys, libels, parodies, second parts and continuations that had appeared in the intervening years. This letter now forms part of many standard texts.
Gulliver's Travels, officially Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World, in Four Parts. By Lemuel Gulliver, First a Surgeon, and then a Captain of several Ships is a novel that is both a satire on human nature and a parody of the "travellers' tales" literary sub-genre. It is Swift's best known work, and a classic of English literature.
The book became tremendously popular as soon as it was published (John Gay said in a 1726 letter to Swift that "it is universally read, from the cabinet council to the nursery"), and it is likely that it has never been out of print since then.
Swift had travelled to London to have his work published; the manuscript was secretly delivered to the publisher Motte, who used five printing houses to speed production and avoid piracy. Motte, recognising a bestseller but fearing prosecution, simply cut or altered the worst offending passages (such as the descriptions of the court contests in Lilliput or the rebellion of Lindalino), added some material in defense of Queen Anne to book II, and published it. The first edition was released in two volumes on October 26, 1726, priced 8s. 6d.

Blandford Church


Old Blandford Church
BUILT IN 1735
A Confederate Memorial Since 1901
PETERSBURG, VIRGINIA
Located in Blandford Cemetery
On US Routes 301 - 460

Hanover Courthouse

The small village of Hanover, Virginia, sits as the County Seat of growing Hanover County. Surrounded by centuries of history, this town of nearly 500 people along US Route 301 has lodged many famous dignitaries at an over two centuries old tavern and has been the birthplace of many notable names in American History. The historic courthouse that sits off of the main highway was built in 1735.

20080204

Dick Turpin


Dick Turpin (1706-1739) has been romanticised amost out of existence since his death but there are solid facts concerning him. Wikipedia gives this ionformation about his early career.

He was a butcher by trade in Essex but rather than rely on legitimate suppliers for his stock-in-trade, he turned to stealing the sheep, lamb and cattle, which was considered so serious a criminal offence that it was punishable by death. Scholars and historians are divided as to what caused Turpin to engage in crime in the first place. Some claim it was out of financial necessity; whilst others believe, through studying Turpin's later actions, that his notorious deeds were done through a sense of thrill-seeking. Others believe he was simply too greedy to pay for legitimate stock, and/or too lazy to earn an honest living, and thus a simple brigand.

The life of a fugitive
Turpin was caught stealing two oxen, and was forced to flee the area and leave his wife and business behind. With customs officers in hot pursuit, he had the common sense not to stay in a tavern or inn, where he could have been found easily. Ratehr he fled into the depths of the Essex countryside and lived rough and wild. For a time he lived in caves along the coast of East Anglia, and supported himself by robbing the smugglers who operated there — perhaps the same characters he had met earlier in life.
Eventually he moved on again, this time hiding in Epping Forest (which was larger and far more verdant than it is today, and often used by royalty to hunt deer).
In with the Gregory Gang
Turpin fell in with the Gregory Gang (also known as the Essex gang). They were a group of around 20 bandits, who operated from secret hideouts in Epping Forest.
They were notorious around Essex and London. They bravely, or perhaps foolishly, stole and killed royal game which had been set aside by the gamekeepers for the King's own hunts. If caught doing this, they would surely face the gallows, or maybe even face hanging, drawing adn quartering. This is because it was considered high treason to poach the King's own deer.
The three ringleaders of the Gregory Gang were brothers after whom the gang was named: Samuel, Jasper and Jeremy. Other gangmembers included Thomas Hadfield, Thomas Barnfield, Thomas Rowden, Mary Brazier, John Fielder, Herbert Haines, John Jones, James Parkinson, Joseph Rose, Ned Rust, William Saunders, Humphry Walker and John Wheeler. There may have been other members.
The gang was not limited to mere poaching. They attempted an armed robbery at a gentleman's house at Woodford, Essex, but the inhabitants of the village drove the rogues off without their being able to accomplish anything. The gang appeared unfazed by this. In March 1735, Turpin, along with the Gregory brothers attacked theEarl of Suffolk's servant in Epping Forest and took from him his horse valued at £80 (this in a time where horses were a more valued commodity than gold). A few weeks later, Sir Caesar Child was attacked in the Forest by the gang who fired at the coachman without bidding him to stand and shot off the tip of his nose. They robbed him of £25. Allegedly, all these acts were orchestrated by Turpin, although this is unconfirmed. It is certain that Turpin learned a lot from the gang.
As Turpin joined them, the Gregory Gang were entering a particularly violent phase of their criminal career. They had begun to specialise in forced entry into (usually isolated) houses around theHome Counties, and terrorising the occupants to make them reveal the whereabouts of hidden valuables. By 1735, the London Evening Post regularly reported the exploits of Turpin and 'The Essex Gang' and the King had offered a reward of £50 for their capture.
The Loughton incident
On February 8, 1735 Read's Weekly Journal reported one such attack: 'On Saturday night last, about seven o'clock, five rogues entered the house of Widow Shelley at Loughton in Essex, having pistols, and threatened to murder the old lady, if she would not tell them where her money lay, which she obstinately refusing for some time, they threatened to lay her across the fire, if she did not instantly tell them, which she would not do. But her son being in the room, and threatened to be murdered, cried out, he would tell them, if they would not murder his mother, and did, whereupon they went upstairs, and took near £100, a silver tankard, and other plate, and all manner of household goods. They afterwards went into the cellar and drank several bottles of ale and wine, and broiled some meat, ate the relicts of a filet of veal. While they were doing this, two of their gang went to Mr Turkles, a farmer, who rents one end of the widow's house, and robbed him of above £20, and then they all went off, taking two of the farmer's horses, to carry off their luggage, the horses were found on Sunday the following morning in Old Street, and stayed about three hours in the house.'
This particular raid took place on February 1, 1735, and widow Shelly's house was inTraps Hill, Loughton. It was reported the gang had made away with £700, a huge amount of money in those days. It is the best surviving account of the Gregory Gang's activities. The Loughton Incident was also their last ever criminal activity as a gang.
Although the newspaper report does not specifically mention Turpin, it seems highly likely that he was a member of the gang on this occasion. Turpin often carried out his robberies in the company of a man named Thomas Rowden (formerly a metal-worker, now outlawed) and a report at the time states that Rowden was involved in the robbery at Loughton. A more recent author has written that the crime was conceived, planned and scouted by Turpin but no evidence is given for this.
Turpin's joining the gang would prove a bad omen for them. Shortly after the Loughton incident, constables worked hard to track them down, and did so not long after. The Gregory Gang were tracked down and surprised by police officers whilst the criminals were living up the good life with their spoils in a tavern in Westminster. Turpin managed to escape by jumping out of a window, but the three ringleaders of the gang were caught and hanged at the gallows as common thieves.
At this time John Wheeler, a gang member turned police informer, described Turpin as a "tall, fresh-coloured man, very much marked with the pox", who wore a light wig.
Thomas Hadfield, one of Turpin's closest friends within the gang, escaped with Turpin through the tavern window, but refused to continue with criminal activity. The other gang members rapidly dispersed also, and didn't bother to regroup in the forest. They had either had enough, or were too scared of the hangman. This was the end of the Gregory Gang.
The birth of Dick Turpin the highwayman
Upon the breakup of the Gregory Gang, and the capture and execution of others, the only gang members left still indulging in criminal behaviour were Turpin himself and the raucous Thomas Rowden. The duo changed their tactics from robbing isolated farmhouses to robbing stagecoaches passing through Epping Forest, which they found to be considerably easier for two men instead of a gang. At last, Turpin had become what he was destined to become — a highwayman.
Later Turpin went into partnership with Tom King, "the Gentleman Highwayman", who at that time was just as famous as Turpin himself, although a less well known highwayman than Turpin today. "Captain King", as he was sometimes called, was said to have had better manners, and was said to be more dashing than Turpin, and being flattering to his victims was a deliberate tactic of his. King was the kind of swashbuckling, devil-may-care character into which legend would later transform Turpin.
Turpin and King met on the road one night when the former attempted to rob the latter. King responded with the words: "What is this; dog eat dog?"
The two joined forces and it proved to be a highly successful partnership (unlike Turpin's previous short-lived partnership with Thomas Rowden). The pair established a hide-out at the remains of anIron Age fort, now known as Loughton Camp.
From one particular cave in Epping Forest, they could watch a road without being seen, and robbed virtually anyone who passed along it. Even local peddlers started to carry weapons for protection. There was soon a oprice on Turpin's head.
Turpin becomes a murderer
Numerous acts of murder are attributed to Dick Turpin, although it is not clear which ones were actually committed by him and which weren't, due to centuries of embellishment. There is of course no doubt he did commit murder, but the questions are; how many times did he commit murder; who were his victims; and where did Turpin's murders take place? Historians have debated these questions for centuries.
Turpin's first kill was probably a man named Thomas Morris whom he killed on May 4, 1735. Morris was a servant of Henry Thomson, one of the keepers of Epping Forest, and during a routine walkabout of the forest Morris accidentally came across Turpin atFarimead Bottom, near Loughton. Morris tried to apprehend him (there was a big reward for Turpin's capture at the time) but was immediately shot by Turpin.
Once again Turpin took to his heels, only this time with a far greater crime on his hands than theft. Despite the high risk of capture, Turpin visited his estranged wife who was now living in Hertford, possibly suspecting (accurately, as it turned out) that he would never see her again. Turpin was indeed nearly caught and only very narrowly avoided capture at this point.

Book on criminals



This title first appeared in 1735.


LIVES OF THE MOST REMARKABLE CRIMINALS

Who have been Condemned and Executed for Murder, the Highway, Housebreaking, Street Robberies, Coining or other offences

Collected from Original Papers and Authentic Memoirs, and Published in 1735

EDITED BY ARTHUR L. HAYWARD


This book can be seen here or here.

20080201

St Benedict and a solar eclipse


Is this painting the earliest realistic depiction of a total eclipse of the Sun? Some historians believe so. The above painting was completed in 1735 by Cosmas Damian Asam, 1686-1739 (brother of Egid Quirin Asam), a famous early 18th Century painter and architect in Germany. The painting shows the solar corona and the diamond ring effect visible when sunlight flows only between mountains on the Moon. The person depicted viewing it all is St Benedict. Roberta J M Olson and Jay Pasachoff have hypothesised that Asam himself may have seen first hand one or all of the total solar eclipses of May 1706, 1724 and 1733. Asam's painting currently hangs in Weltenburg Abbey in Bavaria, Germany. It came to my attention as picture of the day on an astronomy site (see here). For more on Asam see here.