This blog attempts to collate various materials in connection with the year 1735.


Russo-Turkish War

There has been more than one war between Russia and Turkey or the Ottoman Empire. One occurred 1735-39.
By the outbreak of war, Russia had managed to secure a favourable international situation by signing a few treaties with Persia, 1732-1735, (which was at war with Turkey 1730-36) and supporting the accession to the Polish throne of Augustus III (1735) instead of the French protege Stanislaw I Leszczynski, nominated by pro-Turkish France. Austria was Russia's ally since 1726.
The casus belli was the raids of the Crimean Tatars on Ukraine at the end of 1735 and the Crimean khan's military campaign in the Caucasus. In 1736, the Russian commanders envisioned the seizure of Azov and the Crimea.
In May 1736, the Russian Dnieper army (62,000 men) took by storm the Turkish fortifications at Prekop and occupied Bakhchisaray by June. However, lack of supplies coupled with the outbreak of an epidemic forced a retreat to Ukraine. The Russian Don army (28,000 men) with support from the Don Flotilla seized the fortress of Azov. In July, 1737, the first army took by storm the Turkish fortress of Ochakov. The Lacy army (already 40,000 men strong) marched into the Crimea the same month, inflicting a number of defeats on the army of the Crimean khan and capturing Karasubazar. However, Lacy and his soldiers had to leave the Crimea due to lack of supplies.
In July 1737, Austria entered the war against the Turks but was defeated a number of times. In August, Russia, Austria and the Ottoman Empire began fruitless negotiations to end the war. The Russian army had to leave Ochakov and Kinburn because of plague.
In 1739 the Turks were defeated at Stavuchany and occupied the fortress of Khotin and Jassy. However, Austria was defeated by the Turks once again and signed a separate peace treaty. This, coupled with the imminent threat of Swedish invasion, forced Russia to sign the Treaty of Nissa with Turkey, which ended the war.

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